Toxicity of pulp and paper solid organic waste ...

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Title Toxicity of pulp and paper solid organic waste constituents to soil organisms
Author(s) D. Scott Fraser, Kathryn O’Halloran, Michael R. van
Journal Chemosphere
Date 2008
Volume 74
Issue
Start page 660
End page 668
Abstract This study examined the potential biological hazard of pulp and paper waste solids. The solids examined were chosen on the basis of the range of wood-related organic extractives and were either primary solids screened from the effluent stream before secondary treatment, or biosolids from aerated stabilisation lagoons. Acute effects were tested at the level of plants, invertebrates and soil microbes using an oat germination and growth test, earthworm survival and reproduction test, an enchytraeid worm survival and reproduction test, and standard measures of microbial respiration. This was further benchmarked against a marine bacteria toxicity test using extract of the waste solids. Resin acids and resin acid neutrals made up the greatest proportion of organic extractives measured in biosolids whereas resin acids and fatty acids were the main constituents detected in primary solids. Examination of the tissue of earthworms from the tests revealed no net bioconcentration of the organic extractives. The waste solids were not acutely toxic to any of the soil organisms as tested without any dilution. Conversely, extracts of the waste solids demonstrated toxicity in the marine bacteria. In some cases, the solid waste material enhanced the growth of plants, earthworm reproduction and microbial respiration. The only adverse affect was that reproduction of enchytraeids was reduced by some of the waste solid treatments. However these effects did not appear to be associated with concentrations of resin acid neutrals and resin acids in these materials. Overall pulp and paper wastes were relatively benign in terms of toxicity to the soil organisms tested.
DOI 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.10.065

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