Dynamic restitution of action potential duration ...
|Title||Dynamic restitution of action potential duration during electrical alternans and ventricular fibrillation|
|Author(s)||M. L. Koller, M. L. Riccio, R. F., J. Gilmour|
|Journal||The American Journal of Physiology|
|Abstract||The restitution kinetics of action potential duration (APD) were investigated in paced canine Purkinje fibers (P; n = 9) and endocardial muscle (M; n = 9), in isolated, perfused canine left ventricles during ventricular fibrillation (VF; n = 4), and in endocardial muscle paced at VF cycle lengths (simulated VF; n = 4). Restitution was assessed with the use of two protocols: delivery of a single extrastimulus after a train of stimuli at cycle length = 300 ms (standard protocol), and fixed pacing at short cycle lengths (100-300 ms) that induced APD alternans (dynamic protocol). The dynamic protocol yielded a monotone increasing restitution function with a maximal slope of 1.13 +/- 0.13 in M and 1.14 +/- 0.17 in P. Iteration of this function reproduced the APD dynamics found experimentally, including persistent APD alternans. In contrast, the standard protocol yielded a restitution relation with a maximal slope of 0.57 +/- 0.18 in M and 0.84 +/- 0.20 in P, and iteration of this function did not reproduce the APD dynamics. During VF, the restitution kinetics at short diastolic interval were similar to those determined with the dynamic protocol (maximal slope: 1.72 +/- 0.47 in VF and 1.44 +/- 0.49 in simulated VF). Thus APD dynamics at short coupling intervals during fixed pacing and during VF were accounted for by the dynamic, but not the standard, restitution relation. These results provide further evidence for a strong relationship among the kinetics of electrical restitution, the occurrence of APD alternans, and complex APD dynamics during VF.|
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