Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract reduces ...
|Title||Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract reduces tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in vascular smooth muscle cells|
|Author(s)||Colleen MacDougall, Jon Amoroso, Catherine Neto, Katherine Gottschall-Pass, Robert Hurta|
|Abstract||Natural 'bioactive' factors have the ability to attenuate atherogenesis in in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of cranberry on the expression of two inflammation-linked enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were examined in aortic smooth muscle (A7r5) cells in the absence/presence of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Western blot analysis revealed that while cranberry did not affect base-line protein expression of COX-2, it did reduce base-line levels of iNOS protein. Cranberry was able to effectively reduce the T'NF alpha-stimulated induction of both these enzymes. This reduction was observed after 6, 12, and 24 hours pre-exposure to cranberry prior to exposure to TNF alpha., and after a 6 hour co-incubation of cranberry with TNF. NFkB (a transcriptional regulator of COX-2 and iNOS) expression was assessed in response to cranberry treatment. Base-line cytosolic, I levels of the phosphorylated form of NFkB (p-NFkB) were reduced following exposure to cranberry. Cranberry also reduced TNF(alpha-stimulated p-NFkB levels. Taken together, these results suggest that cranberry may partly modulate the inflammatory response observed in atherosclerosis by affecting the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and that this modulation may occur through interaction with the NFkB; transcription factor. The temporal/ signal transduction mechanisms involved are being studied.|
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