Regulation of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase by ...
|Title||Regulation of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase by the tumor promoters and protein phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A|
|Author(s)||Robert A. R. Hurta, J. A. Wright|
|Journal||Biochemistry and Cell Biology / Biochimie Et Biologie Cellulaire|
|Abstract||A rapid elevation of ribonucleotide reductase activity was observed with BALB c/3T3 fibroblasts treated with 10 nM okadaic acid, a nonphorbol ester tumor promoter and protein phosphatase inhibitor. Northern blot analysis of the two components of ribonucleotide reductase (R1 and R2) showed a marked elevation of R1 and R2 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis with R1 and R2 specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that the increase in ribonucleotide reductase activity was primarily due to the elevation of the R2 rather than the R1 protein during treatment with okadaic acid. The okadaic acid induced elevations in R1 and R2 message levels occurred without a detectable change in the proportion of cells in S phase and were blocked by treatment of cells with actinomycin D, indicating the importance of the reductase transcriptional process in responding to the action of okadaic acid. Furthermore, down-regulation of protein kinase C with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate pretreatment abrogated the okadaic acid mediated elevation of ribonucleotide reductase mRNAs, consistent with the involvement of this signal pathway in the regulation of ribonucleotide reductase and the effects of okadaic acid. Treatment of cells with 2.5 nM calyculin A, another non-phorbol ester tumor promoter and protein phosphatase inhibitor, resulted in a rapid elevation of both R1 and R2 mRNA levels within 10 min of treatment. This first demonstration that the non-phorbol ester tumor promoters and protein phosphatase inhibitors can cause rapid alterations in ribonucleotide reductase gene expression suggests that (i) ribonucleotide reductase, particularly the R2 component, plays a fundamental role in the critical early events involved in the process of tumor promotion, and (ii) illustrates a role for cellular protein phosphatases in the regulation of ribonucleotide reductase and, through this process, the regulation of DNA synthesis.|
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