Cellular mechanisms involved in brain ischemia
|Title||Cellular mechanisms involved in brain ischemia|
|Author(s)||M. Sweeney-Nixon, J. Yager, W. Walz, B. Juurlink|
|Journal||Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology|
|Abstract||Cellular mechanisms, both destructive and protective, that are associated with cerebral ischemia are reviewed in this paper. Central to understanding the evolution of stroke are the concepts of ischemic core and surrounding penumbral region damage, delayed neuronal death, and neuronal rescue. The role of spreading depression in the evolution of subsequent ATP depletion, ion shifts, glutamate release, activation of glutamate receptors, intracellular Ca2+ changes, and generation of reactive oxygen species in the penumbra in relationship to neuronal and glial cell damage are discussed. We conclude that the most fruitful areas for future stroke research include traditional approaches as well as novel approaches. Traditional approaches include stroke prevention and examination of the effects of combinations of proven and promising effective therapeutic interventions. Novel approaches include delineating mechanisms whereby growth factors and compounds such as deprenyl and staurosporine afford neuroprotection, ultimately leading to direct manipulation of the signal transduction pathways that lead to neuronal dysfunction and death. This includes determining which genes are activated and repressed in specific response to hypoxia-ischemia and determining how such alterations in gene expression affect survival and function of neurons. We also suggest that advantage be taken of the blood-brain barrier compromise during stroke in designing neuroprotective therapies.|
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