Midnight clerks and daily drudges
|Title||Midnight clerks and daily drudges: hospital psychiatry in New York State, 1890-1905|
|Author(s)||Ian R. Dowbiggin|
|Journal||Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences|
|Abstract||Describes the centralization, bureaucratization, and politicization of New York State's care for the insane that began with the State Care Act in 1890 and ended with the Brackett-Rogers bill in 1902. The State Care Act legislated hospitalization in state-funded asylums for all mentally ill persons in county asylums, jails, or workhouses. The three-person Commission in Lunacy, created in 1889, had almost unlimited powers, and many battles were fought between the commission and the state hospitals. The Brackett-Rogers bill attempted to curb spending by abolishing the asylums' boards of managers, giving even more power to the commission, but the boards were reinstated in 1905.|
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