BR96 sFv-PE40 immunotoxin

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Title BR96 sFv-PE40 immunotoxin: nonclinical safety assessment
Author(s) H. G. Haggerty, W. A. Warner, C. R. Comereski, W. M. Peden, L. E. Mezza, B. D. Damle, C. B. Siegall, T. Jeffery Davidson
Journal Toxicologic Pathology
Date 1999
Volume 27
Issue 1
Start page 87
End page 94
Abstract BR96 sFv-PE40, a recombinant DNA-derived fusion protein composed of the heavy- and light-chain variable region domains of the monoclonal antibody BR96 and the translocation and catalytic domains of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, is being developed for the treatment of solid tumors expressing cell surface Lewis(y)-related antigens. Single- and repeat-dose intravenous toxicity studies in rats and dogs and a comparative ex vivo tissue-binding study with rat, dog, and human tissues were conducted to assess the toxicity of BR96 sFv-PE40 and to estimate a safe starting dose in humans. Additional studies were performed to investigate the prevention of pulmonary vascular-leak syndrome, the dose-limiting toxicity of BR96 sFv-PE40 in rats, and the immunogenicity of BR96 sFv-PE40. In single-dose studies in rats, the vascular leak appeared to be primarily confined to the lungs; however, with a repeat-dose regimen (every other day for 5 doses) other organs including the brain and heart were involved at lethal doses (12-15 mg/m2 cumulative). Single doses of 1.8 mg/m2 and a cumulative 3.8 mg/m2 dose (0.75 mg/m2, every other day for 5 doses) were generally well tolerated in rats. These doses are significantly greater than doses required to cure rodents bearing human tumor xenografts. In dogs, the major target organ following single or repeated doses (every 3 days for 5 doses) was the pancreas. Morphologic changes in the exocrine pancreas ranged from atrophy with single-cell necrosis to diffuse acinar necrosis. After a 1-mo dose-free observation period, no residual pancreatic toxicity was observed in dogs given single doses up to 6.0 mg/m2 or 5 doses of 2.4 mg/m2 (12 mg/m2 cumulative). No significant pancreatic toxicity was observed at doses <0.6 mg/m2 in high Lewis(y)-expressing dogs. Assessment of trypsinlike immunoreactivity was useful in monitoring changes in pancreatic function. The immunogenicity of BR96 sFv-PE40 could be inhibited by combined treatment with an immunosuppressant in dogs, thus maintaining exposure to BR96 sFv-PE40.

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