Characterisation of Crassostrea gigas spat ...

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Title Characterisation of Crassostrea gigas spat pathogenic bacteria
Author(s) M. Waechter, F. Le Roux, J. L. Nicolas, E. Marissal, F. C. J. Berthe
Journal Comptes Rendus Biologies
Date 2002
Volume 325
Issue 3
Start page 231
End page 238
Abstract The French mollusc production is mainly based on the Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Since 1991, outbreaks of mass mortality of juveniles are reported during the summer period. These outbreaks are a major concern of oyster industry. Several studies have established given bacterial strains to be pathogenic for bivalve species, including oysters. Here we present a study of mortality outbreaks of C. gigas, as initiated in 1995. In a first step, bacterial strains were isolated during mass mortality outbreak and were biochemically characterised. Among the isolated strains, some strains of Vibrio splendidus biovar II were found to be pathogenic by means of experimental challenge of oyster juveniles. In the second step, a genotypical identification of the pathogenic strain was undertaken, based on 16S RNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis. It confirmed that the pathogenetic strain belonged to Vibrio splendidus biovar II.Original Abstract: La production d'huitres creuses, Crassostrea gigas, est aujourd'hui la principale production francaise de coquillages. Depuis 1991, de forts taux de mortalite de naissain sont rapportes en periode estivale. Ces episodes recurrents sont apparus comme un sujet preoccupant pour l'ensemble de la profession ostreicole. De nombreuses etudes ont etabli le caractere pathogene de certaines souches de bacteries pour diverses especes de bivalves, dont l'huitre creuse. Cependant, la plupart de ces souches sont isolees au cours de la phase larvaire. Apres la metamorphose, les bivalves semblent devenir plus resistants aux agressions bacteriennes. Une etude de bacteries associees a des episodes de mortalite de C. gigas a ete initiee des 1995 au laboratoire Ifremer de La Tremblade. Dans une premiere phase, des souches bacteriennes isolees lors d'episodes de mortalite ont ete caracterisees biochimiquement. Parmi ces bacteries, des souches de Vibrio splendidus biovar II se sont revelees pathogenes du naissain en conditions experimentales. Dans une seconde phase, l'identification genotypique d'une souche reconnue pathogene a ete entreprise par sequencage du gene codant pour l'ARNr 16S et par une etude phylogenetique. Elle confirme l'appartenance de la souche a Vibrio splendidus biovar II.

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