The characterization of mitochondrial permeability ...

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Title The characterization of mitochondrial permeability transition in clonal pancreatic beta-cells. Multiple modes and regulation
Author(s) V. Koshkin, G. Bikopoulos, Catherine B. Chan, M. B. Wheeler
Journal The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Date 2004
Volume 279
Issue 40
Start page 41368
End page 41376
Abstract Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which contributes substantially to the regulation of normal mitochondrial metabolism, also plays a crucial role in the initiation of cell death. It is known that MPT is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The importance of MPT in the pancreatic beta-cell is heightened by the fact that mitochondrial bioenergetics serve as the main glucose-sensing regulator and energy source for insulin secretion. In the present study, using MIN6 and INS-1 beta-cells, we revealed that both Ca(2+)-phosphate- and oxidant-induced MPT is remarkably different from other tissues. Ca(2+)-phosphate-induced transition is accompanied by a decline in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production related to a significant potential dependence of reactive oxygen species formation in beta-cell mitochondria. Hydroperoxides, which are indirect MPT co-inducers active in liver and heart mitochondria, are inefficient in beta-cell mitochondria, due to the low mitochondrial ability to metabolize them. Direct cross-linking of mitochondrial thiols in pancreatic beta-cells induces the opening of a low conductance ion permeability of the mitochondrial membrane instead of the full scale MPT opening typical for liver mitochondria. Low conductance MPT is independent of both endogenous and exogenous Ca(2+), suggesting a novel type of nonclassical MPT in beta-cells. It results in the conversion of electrical transmembrane potential into DeltapH instead of a decrease in total protonmotive force, thus mitochondrial respiration remains in a controlled state. Both Ca(2+)- and oxidant-induced MPTs are phosphate-dependent and, through the "phosphate flush" (associated with stimulation of insulin secretion), are expected to participate in the regulation in beta-cell glucose-sensing and secretory activity.
DOI 10.1074/jbc.M406914200

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