Mechanism of cell death during infectious salmon ...
|Title||Mechanism of cell death during infectious salmon anemia virus infection is cell type-specific|
|Author(s)||T. Joseph, A. Cepica, L. Brown, B. Ikede, F. Kibenge|
|Journal||The Journal of general virology|
|Abstract||Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is a very important fish virus in the Northern hemisphere and there is continued interest in understanding the mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in fish. In this study, the permissive fish cell lines SHK-1, CHSE-214 and TO were used to determine whether ISAV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) is due to apoptosis or necrosis. Characteristic apoptotic DNA fragmentation was observed only in ISAV-infected SHK-1 and CHSE-214 cells. Apoptosis in ISAV-infected SHK-1 cells was confirmed by fragment end-labelling assay, suggesting that CPE in these cells is associated with apoptosis. ISAV-infected TO cells did not undergo apoptosis, but showed leakage of high-mobility group 1 (HMGB1) protein from the nucleus, which is characteristic of cells undergoing necrosis; this suggests that CPE in these cells is associated with necrosis. ISAV-infected SHK-1 cells did not show leakage of HMGB1 protein. Infection with two different strains of ISAV showed that induction of apoptosis was correlated with the appearance of CPE in SHK-1 cells. ISAV-induced apoptosis was inhibited by a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, indicating a caspase-activation pathway. The ISAV putative PB2 protein and proteins encoded by RNA segment 7 bound caspase-8 specifically in vitro, suggesting that these viral proteins may have a role in ISAV-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate for the first time that the mechanism of cell death during ISAV infection is dependent on the cell type, which may have implications for ISAV pathogenesis and persistence.|
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