Haemorrhagic kidney syndrome of Atlantic salmon, ...

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Title Haemorrhagic kidney syndrome of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.
Author(s) P. J. Byrne, D. D. MacPhee, V. E. Ostland, Gerald R. Johnson, H. W. Ferguson
Journal Journal of Fish Diseases
Date 1998
Volume 21
Issue 2
Start page 81
End page 91
Abstract This report describes a new syndrome affecting farmed Atlantic salmon on the Canadian east coast that has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality in affected stocks. The major pathological findings are apparent only microscopically and include renal interstitial haemorrhage and acute tubular necrosis and tubular casting. As a result, the disease has become known as haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS). Affected fish are lethargic and anorectic, and lark external lesions. Clinically, HKS fish are anaemic, hypoproteinaemic and hyperosmolalic, with increased serum concentrations of sodium and chloride. At necropsy, internal changes ranged from apparently normal to include one or several of the following: swelling and/or patchy reddening of the kidney, pale gills, exophthalmos, serosanguinous ascites, darkening of the posterior intestine and splenomegaly. Ultrastructurally, viral inclusions were found in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes of HKS fish, and there were unusual electron-dense inclusions within the tips of renal tubular microvilli of HKS fish. The significance and relevance of the ultrastructural findings to HKS are unknown. Virus isolation was attempted using CHSE, RTG-2, FH-10, BE and EPC cell lines; no virus was isolated. Bacteriological analysis failed to reveal significant pathogens. Analysis of tissues for heavy metals and pesticides was negative. Assays for clostridial toxins, lipopolysaccharide and verotoxins were negative. The aetiology of HKS remains unresolved.

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