A comparative study of uptake and release of ...

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Title A comparative study of uptake and release of glutamic acid and kainic acid by blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.)
Author(s) M. S. Madhyastha, Irene Novaczek, R. F. Ablett, Gerald R. Johnson, M. S. Nijjar, David E. Sims
Journal Aquatic Toxicology
Date 1991
Volume 21
Issue 1-2
Start page 15
End page 28
Abstract Glutamic acid (GA) and kainic acid (KA) are structurally related to domoic acid (DOM), a neurotoxic amino acid that caused human food poisoning in 1987, following consumption of toxic mussels (Mytilus edulis ) from Prince Edward Island, Canada. To study the difference in response of mussels to a physiological amino acid (GA) and a non-physiological amino acid (KA), GA and KA were presented to mussels in dissolved form and as a food encapsulated in liposomes. Kainic acid was absorbed from solution to a lesser degree (0.4%) while GA was taken up more readily (1.1%). Both amino acids were absorbed across the gastro-intestinal epithelium. Kainic acid was concentrated in the kidney, whereas glutamic acid showed equal distribution in all visceral tissues. Glutamic acid was steadily released from mussel tissues, whereas KA resisted depuration. Over 80% of intracellular KA was associated with the TCA soluble fraction of digestive gland tissue, while about 42% of GA was associated with the TCA insoluble fraction. Although KA is structurally related to GA, it was handled differently by mussels, but in the same way as DOM, suggesting that non-protein amino acids are recognized as undesirable compounds.

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