Infectious salmon anemia virus
|Title||Infectious salmon anemia virus: causative agent, pathogenesis and immunity|
|Author(s)||Frederick S. B. Kibenge, K. Munir, Molly J. T. Kibenge, T. Joseph, E. Moneke|
|Journal||Animal Health Research Reviews / Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases|
|Abstract||Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), an economically important new pathogen in marine aquaculture, is classified in the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus Isavirus. The main structural properties of this genus include enveloped virions 90-140 nm in diameter with surface projections of a combined receptor-binding hemagglutinin and receptor-destroying enzyme activity demonstrated to be an esterase, hence recently designated HE, and a genome composed of eight segments of linear, single-stranded, negative sense RNA ranging in length from 1.0 to 2.4 kb, with a total size of approximately 14.3 kb. The viral genome encodes at least ten proteins, of which nine are structural and one is non-structural. Examination of more than 160 ISAV isolates has led to the identification of two hemagglutinin subtypes of ISAV, one North American and one European. The immune response against ISAV after infection or vaccination does not provide full protection against the infection. The recent discovery of antibody-mediated uptake and replication of ISAV in macrophage-like fish cell lines suggests that Fc receptor-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of the ISA virus infection might also occur in vivo, as the virus in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) targets endothelial cells lining blood vessels and macrophage-like cells. Cumulative mortalities in Atlantic salmon during natural ISA outbreaks and experimental infections range from 0 to 100%. ISAV causes fatal systemic infections in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon and asymptomatic infections in feral fish. Experimentally induced fatal clinical disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has identified a correlate of virulence of ISAV that may explain its emergence as a fish pathogen.|
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