Characterization of measurement artefacts in ...
|Title||Characterization of measurement artefacts in fluoroptic temperature sensors: implications for laser thermal therapy at 810 nm|
|Author(s)||S. R. H. Davidson, I. A. Vitkin, M. D. Sherar, William M. Whelan|
|Journal||Lasers in Surgery and Medicine|
|Abstract||Background and Objectives: Fluoroptic sensors are used to measure interstitial temperatures but their utility for monitoring laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is unclear because these sensors exhibit a measurement artefact when exposed to the near-infrared (NIR) treatment light. This study investigates the cause of the artefact to determine whether fluoroptic sensors can provide reliable temperature measurements during LITT. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The temperature rise measured by a fluoroptic sensor irradiated in nonabsorbing media (air and water) was considered an artefact. Temperature rise was measured as a function of distance from a laser source. Two different sensor designs and several laser powers A ere investigated. A relationship between fluence rate and measurement artefact in water was determined and coupled with a numerical simulation of LITT in liver to estimate the error in temperature measurements made by fluoroptic sensors in tissue in proximity to the laser source. The effect of ambient light on the performance of sensors capped with a transparent material ("clear-capped sensors") was also investigated. Results: The temperature rise recorded in air by both clear- and black-capped fluoroptic sensors decreased with distance from a laser source in a manner similar to fluence rate. Sensor cap material, laser power, and the thermal properties of the surrounding medium affected the magnitude of the artefact. Numerical simulations indicated that the accuracy of a clear-capped fluoroptic sensor used to monitor a typical LITT treatment in liver is > 1 degrees C provided the sensor is further than similar to 3 mm from the source. It was also shown that clear-capped fluoroptic sensors are affected by ambient light. Conclusions: The measurement artefact experienced by both black-capped and clear-capped fluoroptic sensors irradiated by NIR light scales with fluence rate and is due to direct absorption of the laser light, which results in sensor self-heating. Clear-capped fluoroptic sensors can be used to accurately monitor LITT in tissue but should be shielded from ambient light. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.|
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