The endoplasmic reticulum in xenobiotic toxicity
|Title||The endoplasmic reticulum in xenobiotic toxicity|
|Author(s)||Alastair E. Cribb, M. Peyrou, S. Muruganandan, L. Schneider|
|Journal||Drug Metabolism Reviews|
|Abstract||The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in an array of cellular functions that play important roles in xenobiotic toxicity. The ER contains the majority of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, as well as a number of conjugating enzymes. In addition to its role in drug bioactivation and detoxification, the ER can be a target for damage by reactive intermediates leading to cell death or immune-mediated toxicity. The ER contains a set of luminal proteins referred to as ER stress proteins (including GRP78, GRP94, protein disulfide isomerase, and calreticulin). These proteins help regulate protein processing and folding of membrane and secretory proteins in the ER, calcium homeostasis, and ER-associated apoptotic pathways. They are induced in response to ER stress. This review discusses the importance of the ER in molecular events leading to cell death following xenobiotic exposure. Data showing that the ER is important in both renal and hepatic toxicity will be discussed.|
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