In vitro formation, disposition and toxicity of ...



Title In vitro formation, disposition and toxicity of N-acetoxy-sulfamethoxazole, a potential mediator of sulfamethoxazole toxicity
Author(s) H. Nakamura, J. Uetrecht, Alastair E. Cribb, M. A. Miller, N. Zahid, J. Hill, P. D. Josephy, D. M. Grant, S. P. Spielberg
Journal The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Date 1995
Volume 274
Issue 3
Start page 1099
End page 1104
Abstract Variation in the formation and disposition of the hydroxylamine of (SMX-HA) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of sulfamethoxazole (SMX)-induced idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. We hypothesized that, in analogy to carcinogenic arylamines, SMX-HA might be further converted to an electrophilic N-acetoxy metabolite which could play a role in mediating SMX toxicity. Accordingly, we chemically synthesized N-acetoxy-SMX, and examined the characteristics of its formation, metabolism, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in human and bacterial test systems. The human arylamine N-acetyl-transferases, (NAT)1 and NAT2, were capable of converting SMX-HA to N-acetoxy-SMX. NAT1 and NAT2 possessed similar affinities for SMX-HA (apparent Km values of 650 and 520 microM, respectively), but the apparent maximal velocity of the NAT1-mediated acetylation was higher than that of NAT2. (1332 vs. 37 nmol/min/U of immunoreactive NAT protein). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells 12,000 x g supernatant fractions converted N-acetoxy-SMX mainly back to SMX-HA, and also to a lesser extent to SMX, at clinically relevant concentrations. Similar pathways were observed in human hepatic cytosolic fractions. In a cytotoxicity assay, N-acetoxy-SMX was significantly more toxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells than SMX-HA (16.6 vs. 11.5% dead cells at a concentration of 300 microM). N-acetoxy-SMX was weakly mutagenic to the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain in the Ames test. These data suggest that the N-acetoxy metabolites of sulfonamides could potentially play a role in mediating sulfonamide idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

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