Altered physiology of rainbow trout in response to ...
|Title||Altered physiology of rainbow trout in response to modified energy intake combined with pulp and paper effluent exposure|
|Author(s)||M. van den Heuvel, M. Landman, M. Finley, D. West|
|Journal||Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety|
|Abstract||Two experiments using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conducted to examine the combined effects of energy intake as manipulated by ration and pulp and paper mill effluent exposure over either one, or two consecutive reproductive cycles. This study demonstrated that the level of energy intake affected the full range of measured parameters from energy allocation to somatic growth and the gonadal development, steroid production and hematology. Increasing ration level expectedly increased growth, condition, liver and gonad size. Female trout in the higher ration treatments produced more follicles and had larger eggs, investing the same relative proportion of total energy into ovarian development. Sex steroid levels and hematological parameters were also positively influenced by increasing ration level in males and females. By far, the most dramatic impact of reduced ration on reproduction was to substantially reduce the frequency of sexually maturing fish. The effects of effluent exposure were not as marked as those linked to ration level and typically did not manifest unless fish were exposed through two consecutive reproductive cycles. The physiological effects of pulp and paper effluent exposure observed in these experiments were not consistent between the two experiments conducted herein , nor were they consistent with previously observed impacts in similar experiments with this effluent. Effluent exposure over one reproductive cycle did not impact physiological parameters in trout. However, when effluent exposure was maintained over two reproductive cycles, a new pattern of effluent response emerged including increased condition factor in both sexes, a decrease in the potential ability of the blood of females to transport oxygen, and increased sex steroids and reproductive investment in males. Effluent was also observed to cause reduced growth in male trout over two years. The effects of ration on gonad and liver size were far more obvious and consistent when a longer exposure was employed, thus, it appears to take more than one full year for energy intake changes to be reflected in those particular physiological endpoints. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
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