Cadmium- and calcium-mediated toxicity in rainbow ...
|Title||Cadmium- and calcium-mediated toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in vivo: Interactions on fitness and mitochondrial endpoints|
|Author(s)||R. Adiele, D. Stevens, C. Kamunde|
|Abstract||Rainbow trout were exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd (5 and 10mugL(-1)) and dietary Ca (60mgg(-1)), individually and in combination, for 30d to elucidate the interactive effects and evaluate the toxicological significance of mitochondrial responses to these cations in vivo. Indices of fish condition and mortality were measured and livers, centers of metabolic homeostasis, were harvested to assess mitochondrial function and cation accumulation. All indices of condition assessed (body weight, hepatosomatic index and condition factor) were reduced in all the treatment groups. Mortality occurred in the Cd-exposed groups with dietary Ca partly protecting against and enhancing it in the lower and higher Cd exposure, respectively. State 3 mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by 30%, 35% and 40% in livers of fish exposed to Ca, Cd and Cd+Ca, respectively, suggesting reduced ATP turnover and/or impaired substrate oxidation. While the phosphorylation efficiency was unaffected, state 4 and state 4+ (+ oligomycin) respirations were inhibited by all the exposures. Mitochondrial coupling was reduced and transiently restored denoting partially effective compensatory mechanisms to counteract Cd/Ca toxicity. The respiratory dysfunction was associated with accumulation of both Cd and Ca in the mitochondria. Although fish that survived acute effects of Cd and Ca exposure apparently made adjustments to energy generation such that liver mitochondria functioned more efficiently albeit at reduced capacity, reduced fitness was persistent possibly due to increased demands for maintenance and defense against toxicity. Overall, interactions between Cd and Ca on condition indices and mitochondrial responses were competitive or cooperative depending on exposure concentrations and duration.|
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