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The mechanism for the reduction of the transient outward K+ current (Ito) in diseased myocardium is unknown. To identify potential mechanisms, the reduction of Ito and its subsequent restoration by norepinephrine (NE) were studied in cultured canine epicardial myocytes. After myocytes were cultured ...
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BACKGROUND: Electrically based therapies for terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) currently fall into 2 categories: antitachycardia pacing and cardioversion. Antitachycardia pacing uses low-intensity pacing stimuli delivered via a single electrode and is effective for terminating slower tachycardias...
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BACKGROUND: Taste buds on the pig tongue have been neither studied in detail nor quantified. We have counted the numbers of fungiform and vallate papillae, estimated their taste bud densities, and computed numbers of taste buds per volume of papilla on porcine tongue. Pig was chosen for this work be...
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We present a nonlinear dynamical systems analysis of the transition to conduction block in one-dimensional cardiac fibers. We study a simple model of wave propagation in heart tissue that depends only on the recovery of action potential duration and conduction velocity. If the recovery function has ...
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Previous modeling studies have suggested that the rapid component of the delayed rectifier (I(Kr)) may contribute importantly to action potential dynamics during tachycardia. To test this idea experimentally, I(Kr) was measured as the E-4031-sensitive current in isolated canine endocardial myocytes ...
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Despite recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism for ventricular fibrillation (VF), important electrophysiological aspects of the development of VF still are poorly defined. It has been suggested that the onset of VF involves the disintegration of a single spiral wave into many self-per...
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The relationships between key features of the cardiac electrical activity, such as electrical restitution, discordant alternans, wavebreak, and reentry, and the onset of ventricular tachyarrhythmias have been characterized extensively under the condition of constant rapid pacing. However, it is unli...
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Computer simulations are potentially effective approaches to unraveling the causes of lethal heart rhythm disorders. In this issue of the JCI, Xie et al. have embedded a well-characterized dynamic mechanism for arrhythmia development in an anatomically realistic computer model of the heart. Their de...
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Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition characterized by prolongation of ventricular repolarization and is manifested clinically by lengthening of the QT interval on the surface ECG. Whereas inherited forms of LQTS associated with mutations in the genes that encode ion channel proteins are identified...
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Ventricular arrhythmias and the proclivity for sudden death have been identified in German shepherd dogs. This disorder is inherited, and affected animals can be consistently produced from an established colony. The arrhythmias are most prevalent in young dogs between 22 and 26 weeks of age, with de...
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The objective of this ultrastructural investigation was to determine if populations of pericytes in equine dermal and skeletal capillaries increase in a head-to-foot direction, as has been reported in human skeletal muscles. Samples of equine microvessels were obtained from the longissimus dorsi ske...
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Background: Hypothesis: Animals: Methods: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Lidocaine is most frequently used to treat ventricular arrhythmias. However, lidocaine may have an antiarrhythmic effect for certain supraventricular arrhythmias.We hypothesized that lidocaine would be effective ...
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BACKGROUND: Dynamically induced heterogeneities of repolarization may lead to wave-front destabilizations and initiation of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In a computer modeling study, we demonstrated that specific sequences of premature stimuli maximized dynamically induced spatial dispersion of re...
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Objective: Animals: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To determine the type of atrial fibrillation induced by use of 2 pacing protocols during fentanyl and pentobarbital anesthesia before and after administration of atropine and to determine the organization of electrical acti...
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As part of a 3-wk intersession workshop funded by a National Science Foundation Expeditions in Computing award, 15 undergraduate students from the City University of New York(1) collaborated on a study aimed at characterizing the voltage dynamics and arrhythmogenic behavior of cardiac cells for a br...
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In this paper, we report on ultrasonically actuated silicon thin microprobes that successfully penetrated canine cardiac tissue in vitro, and recorded the electrophysiological signals from multiple sites simultaneously within the heart wall. The penetration force--maximum force encountered by the pr...
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Although alternans of action potential duration (APD) is a robust feature of the rapidly paced canine ventricle, currently available ionic models of cardiac myocytes do not recreate this phenomenon. To address this problem, we developed a new ionic model using formulations of currents based on previ...
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Objectives: Background: Methods: Results: Conclusions: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the QT interval dynamics that precede torsade de pointes are consistent with the initiation of this arrhythmia by early afterdepolarization-induced triggered activity.Early afterdepolarization-i...
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Repolarization alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration, has been putatively linked to the onset of cardiac reentry. Anti-alternans control strategies can eliminate alternans in individual cells by exploiting the rate dependence of action potential duration. The same approa...
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A series of related new models for the local dynamics of cardiac tissue is introduced. The models are based on a simple memory-like quantity that is used to determine the relationship among the durations and amplitudes of the stimulated action potentials. The first of these models produces period-do...
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