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Two new sterols, epipolasterol and 22(23)-dihydroepipolasterol, have been isolated from the marine sponge Epipolasis sp. These are unusual metabolites as they both contain a t-butyl group in the sterol side chain. In addition, the presence of two degrees of unsaturation in the side chain of epipolas...
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Isochrysis galbana, one of the most widely used marine microalgae in the rearing of finfish and shellfish larvae, is mass cultured frequently in outdoor tanks. Under prolonged and repeated culture, severe contamination occurs. Axenic isolation of I. galbana from such cultures was best achieved by us...
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A biosynthetic study has been performed to elucidate the precise mechanisms of sterol side chain dealkylation in marine sponges. This process resembles that of insects by involving the oxidation of common dietary sterols with unsaturation at C-24(28) (24-methylenecholesterol (8), fucosterol (3), and...
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The potential use of bFGF immortalized cells as hosts for delivering foreign genes into nervous tissue led us to examine the effect of maintaining, E-18 hippocampal neurons for extended periods in bFGF culture prior to transfer into a standard, serum-containing, medium. We found: (1) many, if not mo...
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The possibility that neurons cultured in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are heterogeneous raises concerns about their subsequent use in gene transfection and transplantation studies. We have examined the fate of embryonic hippocampal neurons in bFGF culture, and now conclude that these cells ...
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A viable cell-free extract of the marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata has been generated that is capable of transforming amino acids into the ecteinascidin antitumor alkaloids. Tyrosine and cysteine were identified as two building blocks used in ecteinascidin production. The enzyme preparations ...
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Bryostatin 1, a natural product anticancer agent isolated from a marine bryozoan, has been shown in tissue culture to activate protein kinase C. This agent has recently undergone Phase I testing in humans given either as a bolus i.v. injection or a continuous infusion. To understand how bryostatin 1...
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Gorgonian corals continue to provide a wealth of novel structures, many of which exhibit potentially useful biological activity. Notably, the families Briareidae, Gorgoniidae and Plexauridae have been demonstrated to contain a wide variety of natural products including steroids, acetogenins, sesquit...
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The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs <1 year old from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Fecal samples were collected from the local animal shelter (n=62), private veterinary clinics (n=78) and a pet store (n=69). Intestinal para...
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The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rur...
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Microstimulation of the rat posterior insular cortex in phase with the ECG R wave elicits pure cardiac effects unaccompanied by changes in blood pressure or respiration. This technique has successfully demonstrated cardiac chronotropic organisation and arrhythmogenesis within the insula. Pathways ex...
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A photo-activated sound alarm was placed in a specially designed sterile semi-conical sponge tampon and inserted into the vagina of the sow after labour had commenced, or on the day before expected parturition. When the tampon was expelled from the vagina by the first-born piglet and was thus expose...
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The current investigation examined the role of estrogen in central autonomic regulatory nuclei on the autonomic dysfunction resulting from middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Experiments were done in anaesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of MCAO on autonomic tone was assessed by mo...
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This is the first transcriptomic study focusing on immunity in the commercially valuable American lobster (Homarus americanus). We have conducted an in vivo infection trial using the Gram-positive bacterium Aerococcus viridans var. homari to determine how H. americanus responds to this naturally occ...
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Agricultural pesticide runoff has been suspected as the cause of numerous fish kills in rivers throughout Prince Edward Island but the impact on the surrounding marine environment is unknown. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is a potent neurotoxin and molt inhibitor used to combat the Colora...