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1426 - 1450 of 1563
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The host-adherence strategies employed by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of an infectious bacteremia of salmonids, are poorly understood. In addition to the outer protein coat or S-layer, A. salmonicida has both Type I and Type IV pili loci. The A. salmonicida Type I...
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Campylobacter jejuni, an important food-borne human pathogen, is increasingly resistant to antimicrobials. Natural transformation is considered to be a main mechanism for mediating the transfer of genetic materials encoding antibiotic resistance determinants in C. jejuni, but direct evidence for thi...
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The effect of reduced feed ration on infestation levels with the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and gene expression in juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha was tested in three laboratory trials. Body weight was significantly lower among fish on the reduced ration for 27, 34, or 65 d than f...
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It is generally considered that stress causes decreased immune function in fish. In this study we examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) the effects of both short- (a single 15s out of water) and long-term (4weeks of daily handling 15s out of water) stress on plasma cortisol (free and t...
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization was not identified in any of 497 horses from Atlantic Canada. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from a subsample of 19/242 (7.9%) horses. Colonization with MSSA is relatively common in healthy horses in Atlantic Cana...
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Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no differenc...
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Vessel-whale collision events represented the ultimate cause of death for 21 (52.5%) of the 40 North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) necropsied between 1970 and December 2006. Injuries seen in vessel-struck whales fall into two distinct categories: (1) sharp trauma, often resulting from ...
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BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major dis...
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A mass was removed from the nostril of a mule that exhibited unilateral epistaxis and nasal discharge. Impression smears revealed oval structures consistent with spores of Rhinosporidium seeberi. Microscopically, the mass was composed of fibrovascular granulomatous tissue containing sporangia R. see...
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‘Sea lice’ is a common name for a large number of species of marine ectoparasitic copepods, many of which are widespread and important disease-causing agents that infect both cultured and wild fish. Of these copepods, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most extensively studied becau...
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A mortality event primarily affecting freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens was noted during April and May 2005 in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada. A conservative estimate of the number of dead drum was approximately 100 metric tonnes. Large numbers of dead round goby Neogobius melanostomus ...
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Quorum sensing is a type of bacterial communication mediated by chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers (AIs). The production of AI-2 and AI-3 is dependent on the luxS gene in Escherichia coli O157:H7. A luxS mutation caused a minimal decrease (about 2-fold) in Shiga toxin (Stx) production ...
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The global regulator Mlc is a repressor of several genes and operons that are involved in sugar uptake and metabolism. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mlc mutant showed reduced levels of invasion and cytotoxicity compared to the wild-type, and exhibited reduced expression levels of hilD, h...
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Campylobacter jejuni is an important bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans. C. jejuni is capable of natural transformation, which is considered a major mechanism mediating horizontal gene transfer and generating genetic diversity. Despite recent efforts to elucidate the transformation...
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Laboratory-reared pink and chum salmon juveniles (∼2g) received an intraperitoneal injection with a commercial, unadjuvanted Aeromonas salmonicida bacterin or sterile saline. Relative to elongation factor-1A, expression levels of genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β-1 (IL-1...
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We have previously shown that Lepeophtheirus salmonis produces trypsin and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) that are most likely responsible for the limited inflammatory response of Atlantic salmon to infection. After removal of the dopamine and PGE₂, the immunomodulatory activity of unfractionated and...
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The cell envelope of Aeromonas salmonicida contains a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) essential for the physical integrity and functioning of bacterial cell membrane. Using a recently developed in-source fragmentation technique, we screened 39 typical and atypical isolates of A. salmonicida and established...
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The under-agarose leukocyte-migration-inhibition (LMI) assay for the evaluation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was developed for use in chickens. A significant CMI response was demonstrated in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine by using this assay. The results also indicated that th...
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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian pneumovirus (APV) cause Newcastle disease and rhinotracheitis respectively, in turkeys. Both of these viruses infect the respiratory system. A one-tube, multiplex, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of both NDV and...
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A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect of avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain) (APV-Col). The specific primers were designed from the published sequence of the matrix protein gene of APV-Col. The primers amplified a product of 631 nucleotides from APV-Col. The...
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Stunting syndrome (SS) is a viral enteric disease of turkey poults. The aetiologic agent (stunting syndrome agent [SSA]) of this disease has been reported recently. In vitro propagation of SSA was examined in primary cells, various continuous cell lines, and embryonated eggs. Turkey embryos inoculat...
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The aetiologic agent of stunting syndrome (SS)was investigated in day-old turkey poults orally inoculated with a SS-inducing inoculum. The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated on the fourth day after inoculation. The IECs were lysed and filtered through 0.2-, 0.1-, and 0.02-µm filters. ...
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Stunting syndrome is an enteric disease of turkeys causing diarrhea, reduced weight gain, poor feed efficiency, and maldigestion. The etiologic agent is a newly identified, but unclassified, virus termed the stunting syndrome agent (SSA). The SSA is a pleomorphic, enveloped virus ranging from 60 to ...
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