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The control of the ectoparasite, sea lice (L. salmonis), on farmed Atlantic salmon in Eastern Canada was complicated by the development of resistance to emamectin benzoate, the primary in-feed medication used since 2000. Field efficacy and bioassay assessments were initiated to address the emergency...
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In New Brunswick, Canada, the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses an on-going management challenge to the health and productivity of commercially cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. While the in-feed medication, emamectin benzoate has been highly effective for many years, evidence of increa...
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Sea lice audits were performed by the Atlantic Veterinary College on commercial aquaculture sites in New Brunswick, Canada, in 2011. Although the primary objective was to verify that farms were reporting similar lice counts to third-party counts, more detailed comparisons were made to identify w...
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Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically l...
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Resistance development to parasiticides has been a problem in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. A major challenge exists in early detection of resistance emergence due to the low frequency at which resistant organisms can occur initially within a population and the difficulty in detecting t...
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The growth, survival and tag retention of double-tagged external FT4 lock-on (FT4) and internal passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged] Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were compared to internal PIT-tagged controls in a randomized trial. The objective was to assess the suitability of ...
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During the course of a multi-site clinical field trial comparing the field effectiveness of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccines, an opportunity arose to examine the potential effects of repeated fish handling on the controlled trial outcome. Fish-level data obtained by seining, dip-netting and...
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The Atlantic Canadian aquaculture industry is dominated by Atlantic salmon production. In recent years, infectious disease, parasitic infestations, and price fluctuations from international competition have caused disruptions to the industry. Diversification of the industry away from Atlantic salmon...
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Conventional studies on the precision of diagnostic tests with binary outcomes report single descriptive estimates of agreement for a particular pool of samples. However, agreement for binary tests is intrinsically associated with the assay operating characteristics that are influenced by population...
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In the absence of a reference standard, a latent class model (LCM) was used in this study to assess diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp) of a recently developed reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). The study included 4 pop...
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Emamectin benzoate (an avermectin chemotherapeutant administered to fish as an in-feed treatment) has been used to treat infestations of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1999. This retrospective...
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The Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) aquaculture industry is a major contributor of salmon products that help meet protein needs for the world’s growing population. The industry in NL continues to grow and evolve and now includes emerging species in its production such as Atlantic cod. In a growing ...
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The depletion of emamectin B1a in the edible tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was studied at two inclusion rates of emamectin benzoate (EMB; Slice®) in commercially prepared diets. Fish were maintained in tanks supplied by flow-through, temperature-controlled natural seawater at 10.08±0.26...
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Diagnostic laboratories frequently select a subjective cutoff value for real-time amplification assays, above which a threshold cycle (Ct) value is deemed false. Commonly, higher Ct values are interpreted as amplification or fluorescence artifacts, or cross contaminations. Although the implementatio...
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Abstract A randomized, blinded clinical trial was performed to assess the relative effectiveness of five commercial and one experimental vaccine in a population of farmed fish experiencing a bacterial kidney disease (BKD) outbreak that occurred in one study cage that was part of a larger clinical fi...
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To secure the safety of international trade of animal and their derived products, it is required that animals should be proven infection-free using a validated diagnostic test certified by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Test validation involves a multi-step evaluation process to as...
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As a component of diagnostic test evaluation, the estimation of repeatability and reproducibility of an assay is necessary to assess the robustness and the transferability of the method among laboratories. Respectively defined as the agreement within and between laboratories, repeatability and repro...
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Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been found to cause disease in cultured salmon of the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Diagnosis of IHNV by virus isolation (VI) can take over 2 weeks. Recently, a rapid reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test on fi...
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A bioassay for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity towards emamectin benzoate (EMB) was validated for field use. A probit regression model with natural responsiveness was used for the number of affected (moribund or dead) sea lice in bioassays involving different concentrations of EMB. Bioa...
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We previously reported our use of latent-class models to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for each of three tests used to monitor farmed salmon for infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAv). Those tests were reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation (VI...
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Over the last 10 years, there have been sporadic increases in early sexual maturation (grilsing) in Atlantic salmon (AS) in seawater grow-out sites in New Brunswick with an apparent upward trend. Grilsing in AS reduces flesh quality and growth. With estimated gross revenue of $250 million in 2002, l...
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A double-blind, randomized control clinical trial was performed to investigate the effectiveness of teflubenzuron in controlling sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. A total of 40 sea cages from 3 commercial cage sites in Atlantic Canada were used in this Good Clin...
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A historical control clinical trial was performed to assess the effectiveness of teflubenzuron in controlling sea lice Lepeoptheirus salmonis burdens on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar over time. The study site comprised 9 sea cages, all of which were treated. The teflubenzuron was administered i...
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Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, characterized by lethargy, anorexia, anemia and death. Test methods used for regulatory decisions to remove infected cages include the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), the reverse transcription-polymer...