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In the first part of this study, generation times relative to temperature, together with cardinal and conceptual temperatures, were determined for four strains of Xenorhabdus bacteria that represented three geographically distinct species. The data showed that the NF strain of Xenorhabdus bovienii, ...
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Two bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes, one of which originated from Texas, U.S.A., and the other from Newfoundland, Canada, were characterized phenotypically. These strains belonged to the genus Xenorhabdus. The Newfoundland (NF) strain was shown to be X. bovienii but the Texas (TX) ...
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Four isolates (= 3 species) of steinernematids were propagated at 25, 20 and when possible, 15 and 10 degrees C for 2 years, then their capacities for tolerating high temperatures and freezing determined. In all isolates, the temperature at which 50% of the infective juveniles died (LT50) increased ...
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Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to determine the degree to which isozyme banding patterns differed among 4 strains of steinernematid nematodes that had been recycled or stored at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C: Steinernema feltiae Umea strain, S. carpocapsae A11 strain, S. riobravis [S. r...
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Four strains of entomopathogenic nematodes were recycled in vivo for 2 years at temperatures ranging from 10 to 25 degrees C before the infectivity of their juveniles was compared. Infectivity was examined by measuring LC50 values for Galleria mellonella larvae at bioassay temperatures ranging from ...
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The kinetic properties of two metabolic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and hexokinase, were studied in 4 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes that had been recycled for two years at various temperatures: Steinernema feltiae NF strain, S. feltiae Umea strain, S. carpocapsae. All strain, ...
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A steinernematid nematode was isolated from soil samples collected near St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. On the basis of its morphometry and RFLPs in ribosomal DNA spacer, it was designated as a new strain, NF, of Steinernema feltiae. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to separate isozymes ...
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Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of two carbamates, carbofuran (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) and fenoxycarb (a juvenile hormone analog), on survival and infectivity of the infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae Umea strain and Steinernema carpocapsae All st...
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This article provides a detailed overview of the rationale for key aspects of the protocol of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial. It also highlights unusual aspects of the study implementation and the baseline characteristics. The DIG trial is a large, simple, international placebo-contro...
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Greenhouse trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of treating adult and egg stages of Choristoneura fumiferana with Insegar, a water-based commercial formulation of the juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb, or with water (controls) at droplet sizes and densities comparable to those achieved th...
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Eggs (0-24 h old and 48-72 h old) of Choristoneura fumiferana were treated topically with fenoxycarb dissolved in acetone. Only 25% of treated eggs hatched, compared to 90% of control eggs. Survival of larvae from treated eggs to induction of diapause in the 2nd instar, and of diapausing larvae, was...
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The nervous system of the mermithid nematode Romanomermis culicivorax was investigated at different developmental stages for the distribution of catecholamine(s). The catecholamines nervous system increased in complexity during development..
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The relative concentrations of catecholamine in the nervous system of Romanomermis culicivorax were measured under different experimental conditions by a glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence procedure. A greater concentration of catecholamine was recorded in the nervous system of adult males and fema...
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The nervous system of Romanomermis culicivorax was investigated at different developmental stages for the distribution of the neuropeptide FMRF-amide. The results suggest that FMRF-amide-like peptides is widely distributed within the nervous system of R. culicivorax and might function as a neurohorm...
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Distribution of caudal papillae in adult Romanomermis culicivorax was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Ninety-eight caudal papillae, each containing one pore, were present in males but absent in females. Papillae were arranged in 3 longitudinal rows, one ventral and 2 ventrolateral; the m...
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Early 6th-instar larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana were topically treated with the juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb, and fat bodies were isolated at varying times post-treatment for metabolic studies. Fenoxycarb impaired lipid synthesis by the fat bodies, suppressing both the synthesis of fatty...
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Sixth-instar larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana were treated with LD50 concn of the juvenile hormone analogues fenoxycarb and methoprene. Fenoxycarb caused an initial decrease, then an increase, in haemolymph concn. Fat-body glycogen was depleted initially, then relatively increased in concn towards...
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The effectiveness of topical applications of the juvenile hormone analogue fenoxycarb against selected stages of Choristoneura fumiferana was determined. Fenoxycarb prevented eggs at an early stage of embryogenesis (0-24 h old) from hatching, and these eggs were more sensitive to the compound than o...
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A description is given of an axenic laboratory method for rearing Choristoneura fumiferana larvae that is suitable for physiological studies. The rearing procedure is a modification of the method of D. G. Grisdale (1984), using a wheat-germ based synthetic diet. The axenic rearing method resulted in...
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In vitro growth of R. culicivorax preparasites was monitored in 2 culture media under differing conditions of crowding. Crowding was more important that the character of the medium itself in stimulating in vitro growth. The glycogen, protein, and lipid content of nematodes that had developed after 5...
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The effect of 7 juvenile hormone analogues on the development of larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana was studied in the laboratory at 23 degrees C, LD 16:8 and 65% RH by topical application of the compounds to early 6th-instar larvae. Fenoxycarb showed the highest potential for control, with an LC50 ...
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Treatment of 3rd-instar larvae and recently moulted pupae of the crucifer pest Delia radicum with methoprene suppressed eclosion to the adult stage in relation to the concentration applied. The fecundity of adults that developed from larvae and pupae treated with methoprene was not reduced compared ...
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Isocitrate lyase and malate synthetase, key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, were present in postparasites of R. culicivorax. Specific activities of enzymes were higher in adult postparasites than in newly emerged juveniles. Isocitrate lyase had a well-defined pH optimum (7.5), whereas malate synthe...