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Glutathione transferase mu activity, a marker for susceptibility to lung cancer and chemically induced cytogenetic damage, is not a predictive index for the predisposition to sulphonamide hypersensitivity reactions. However, considering the functional diversity and broad, overlapping substrate speci...
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Prazosin is a readily available alpha-adrenergic antagonist that may be useful in the management of functional urethral obstruction in companion animals. This study used urethral pressure profilometry to evaluate the urethral effects of prazosin and phenoxybenzamine in healthy, non-sedated, male Bea...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis in the dog for an unusual and absolute deficiency in the activity of cytosolic N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme important for the metabolism of arylamine and hydrazine compounds. NAT activity towards two NAT substrates, p-aminobenzoi...
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The N4-hydroxylation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) to its hydroxylamine (SMX-HA) metabolite is the first step in the formation of reactive metabolites responsible for mediating hypersensitivity reactions associated with this compound. In rat hepatic microsomes, the NADPH-dependent oxidation of SMX to SM...
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Inherited defects in detoxification of reactive metabolites of drugs predispose patients to "hypersensitivity" reactions. Covalent interaction of metabolites with cell macromolecules leads to cytotoxic and immunologic outcomes, manifested clinically by multisystem syndromes with variable o...
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Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) causes rare hypersensitivity syndrome reactions characterized by fever and multi-organ toxicity. Covalent binding of SMX reactive metabolites to cellular proteins has been demonstrated but the link between cytotoxicity and targets of covalent binding has not been explored. We ...
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BACKGROUND: Serum total alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity commonly is high in dogs receiving phenobarbital. Specific isoenzymes responsible for this increase are not well documented. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were 1) to qualitatively and quantitatively describe serum AP isoenzymes in p...
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Calpains and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have both been implicated in renal cell death following exposure to reactive chemical toxicants (RCTs). Therefore, we explored the link between ER stress, calpain, and cell death in renal cell injury due to model RCTs (iodoacetamide, menadione, tert-but...
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Sulfonamide antimicrobials cause a delayed-onset, hypersensitivity-type syndrome characterized by fever, skin rash and multiorgan toxicity occurring 7 to 14 days after initiation of therapy. The pathogenesis is believed to be immune-mediated. We investigated whether patients with delayed-onset sulfo...
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Potentially serious idiosyncratic reactions associated with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) include systemic hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity. Covalent binding of SMX to proteins subsequent to its N-hydroxylation to form N4-hydroxysulfamethoxazole (SMX-HA) is thought to be involved in the pathog...
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The down regulation of constitutive hepatic microsomal cytochromes P-450 (P450) by interferons has been well described in experimental animals and humans, however the down regulation of induced forms of P450 has not been documented clearly. Differential down regulation of constitutive and induced P4...
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Sulfonamides are associated with a variety of adverse reactions, some of which have been linked with the classical acetylator phenotypes. Although the slow acetylator phenotype has been identified as a risk factor for hypersensitivity reactions to sulfamethoxazole (SMX), the disposition of this comp...
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(+)-Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, a commonly used marker of hepatic CYP2D6 activity, was investigated in human and rhesus monkey intestinal microsomes and compared with that in hepatic microsomes. The cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH)-mediated metabolism of (+)-bufuralol suggested that at least two enzymes...
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Variation in the formation and disposition of the hydroxylamine of (SMX-HA) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of sulfamethoxazole(SMX)-induced idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. We hypothesized that, in analogy to carcinogenic arylamines, SMX-HA might be further converted t...
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of sample handling, storage, and collection time and season on plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) concentration in healthy equids. ANIMALS: 11 healthy Standardbreds and 13 healthy semiferal ponies. PROCEDURE: Plasma alpha-MSH concentration was m...
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Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas are the most common nonhaematopoietic gastrointestinal tumours in cats. They are highly malignant tumours causing intestinal obstruction due to the annular, stenosing nature to their growth. Current literature is largely based on surveys of pathology records. Therefo...
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Interferon (IFN) and IFN inducers down-regulate hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) through a pretranslational mechanism involving depression of P450 mRNA levels and a subsequent decrease in P450 synthesis. Current evidence suggests that interferon induces the synthesis of a protein which subsequently me...
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Sulphamethoxazole has been associated with the occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions. There is controversy as to whether the immune response is metabolism-dependent or -independent. We have therefore investigated the site of antigen formation and the nature of the drug signal presented to the imm...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, NAT1 and NAT2. N-acety...
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The expression of arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) in leukocytes was investigated using p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), substrates which are preferentially acetylated by the monomorphic NAT1 and polymorphic NAT2 enzymes, respectively. Activity towards both substrates was dete...