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Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria has clinical and public health significance. The present study determined prevalence of AMR in common mastitis pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA; n=1,810), Escherichia coli (n=394), and Klebsi...
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Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) are a major cause of mastitis on farms worldwide. Incidence and elimination rates are the key determinants of prevalence of Staph. aureus, and risk factors associated with these rates must be identified, prioritized, and controlled to obtain long-t...
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Objectives of this study were to identify the manageable risk factors associated with the lactational incidence, elimination, and prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections (IMI) while taking into account the difficulties inherent to their diagnosis. A second object...
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Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic regio...
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The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia and species of Cryptosporidium on beef farms in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, including the water sources associated with the farms, and to determine risk factors for infection of cattle with these parasit...
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To determine the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, 658 human faecal specimens were screened that were submitted to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital diagnostic laboratory. Overall, 143 (22%) samples were Cryptosporidium positive, while three (0.5%) w...
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We evaluated (using latent-class models) the ability of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify cows with intramammary infections on the day of dry-off. The positive and negative predictive values of this test to identify cows requiring dry-cow antibiotics (i.e. infected) was also assessed. W...
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Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 225) from bovine teat skin, human skin, milking equipment, and bovine milk were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Strains were compared to assess the role of skin and milking equipment as sources of S. aureus mastitis. PFGE of SmaI-digested...
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38 bovine mammary Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse clinical, temporal and geographical origins were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after SmaI digestion of prokaryotic DNA and by means of binary typing using 15 strain-specific DNA probes. Seven pulsed-field types and ...
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An ordinary differential equation model was developed to simulate dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Data to estimate model parameters were obtained from an 18-month observational study in three commercial dairy herds. A deterministic simulation model was constructed to estimate values of t...
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The effect of cobalt supplementation on serum vitamin B12, growth rate and survival rate was measured in controlled field experiments with Texel twin lambs of the same sex, grazing cobalt-deficient pastures. The non-supplemented lambs had lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations than their supplemente...
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A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity w...
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An experiment was carried out to determine whether bovine colostrum or placenta could be a source of infection of Neospora caninum for dogs. For this purpose, two dogs were fed bovine colostrum to which culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites were added and two other dogs were fed placental cotyledon...
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Data from 274 Dutch herds recording clinical mastitis (CM) over an 18-month period were used to quantify the genetic variation for overall and pathogen-specific CM. Analysed pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Escherichia coli, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, St...
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Eight dairy herds with evidence of post-natal transmission of Neospora caninum were used to test the hypothesis of a point source exposure by a retrospective analysis of the housing and feeding of infected age-groups. The first N. caninum-associated abortion or birth of N. caninum-seropositive offsp...
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Results of a 20 month split-udder trial on the effect of discontinuation of postmilking teat disinfection on intramammary infections (IMI) with major and minor pathogens in seven dairy herds with a low somatic cell count are described. The incidence of Escherichia coli IMI was found to be significan...
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Fecal samples from 733 cows in 11 dairy herds with a low prevalence of paratuberculosis were cultured for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis both individually and after combining (pooling) in groups of 5. The culture procedure was the modified Jorgensen method, which uses Na...
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This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495 p...
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The Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network has launched a Canadian-wide study of mastitis in Canada. 291 herds registered with Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement were chosen at random, and the incidence of mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk milk collected from these herds was determined. The incidenc...
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Risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case-control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. All 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed...
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A retrospective cohort study design was used to investigate the effect of lameness on reproductive performance on 13 commercial Dutch dairy farms. The average herd size was 64 +or- 16 cows. The data were collected during a routine herd health and production control programme. The cumulative 100-DIM ...