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A case-control study was conducted to compare the physical hoof properties of digits responsible for clinical lameness with those of other digits on the same cows and with those of equivalent digits on non-lame control cows. The control cows were herd-mates matched by age, breed and stage of lactati...
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This manuscript is derived from a presentation at the 2006 AVEPM - Schwabe Symposium which honoured the 2006 recipient of the Calvin Schwabe Award - Dr. S. Wayne Martin. Throughout his career, Dr. Martin was instrumental in furthering the development of quantitative epidemiology. This manuscript hig...
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A computerized health and production information network (APHIN: Animal Productivity and Health Information Network) was developed in Prince Edward Island (P.E.I.) to serve the livestock industries. The dairy portion of the network is designed primarily to aid in the reduction of the unit cost of pr...
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Herd level measures of health and productivity in Prince Edward Island dairy herds, computed monthly over a 4 year period, were evaluated. Descriptive statistics for 11 key measures of health and productivity were computed. The parameters cover the areas of milk production, reproductive performance,...
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A previously reported increase in Nocardia mastitis in Canada was associated with the use of neomycin-based dry cow mastitis preparations; their production and distribution ceased in 1989. Since then the frequency of Nocardia isolations has declined in most provinces, particularly in British Columbi...
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This paper summarizes the results of a project carried out between 1979 and 1982. The work is reported fully in six papers which are being published in Preventive Veterinary Medicine. [For Part 1 see VB 54, 1771]..
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The objectives of this paper are to provide an introduction to meta-analysis and systematic review and to discuss the rationale for this type of research and other general considerations. We highlight methods used to produce a rigorous meta-analysis and discuss some aspects of interpretation of meta...
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A serological survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis, and to investigate associations between leptospiral antibody titers, and herd measures of reproduction. Production records and leptospirosis serology were analyzed for 25 slaughter hogs from each of eleven randomly sam...
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A path analytic approach was used to study data collected on 23 traits of 226 Holstein-Friesians in a commercial dairy herd during May 1981-Oct. 1982. Rectal palpation to assess uterine involution and ovarian activity was performed at 15, 24 and 28 days post partum, and blood samples were collected ...
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Information systems projects in developing countries often run into difficulties and fail to meet their full objectives. This paper looks at the commonly used and recommended methodologies to determine if they fit with the objectives set for information systems and if they are appropriate for the hu...
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Herd level measures of health and productivity in Prince Edward Island dairy herds, computed monthly over a 4 year period, were evaluated. Descriptive statistics for 11 key measures of health and productivity were computed. The parameters cover the areas of milk production, reproductive performance,...
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The relationships between somatic cell counts, milk production and episodes of clinical mastitis were evaluated using data collected between 1979 and 1981 in 32 southern Ontario Holstein herds. Somatic cell counts were logarithmically transformed and the distribution of the resulting counts is prese...
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The objective of this study was to ascertain the value of variables measured on composite milk samples as predictors of mastitis in individual cows. The standard of comparison was the results obtained from the bacteriological examination of individual quarter foremilk samples. Cows were classified a...
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Three methods of assessing mastitis therapies are evaluated: (i) in vitro tests; (ii) experimental studies based on induced infections; (iii) field trials on commercial farms utilizing naturally occurring infections..
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Effects of disease on the risk of removal in Holstein-Friesian cows were investigated in a two and a half year study. Records were available from 141 sold cows, 415 culled cows and 1452 comparison cows in 32 commercial dairy herds within a 50 mile radius of Guelph, Ontario. Removals were subdivided ...
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Individual cow somatic cell counts (SCC) from the first 4 weeks of lactation were obtained from all cows on a cell-counting programme in Prince Edward Island for a period of 4 years. The prevalence of elevated counts (over 200 000 cells/ml) declined sharply in heifers (primiparous animals) from Day ...
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Thirty-two dairy herds within 50 miles of Guelph participated in the 2.5-year study (1979-81). Most herds were in the range of 30-45 milking cows. Three were in loose housing and 29 in tethered housing. All were turned out in summer, and 21 were let out for exercise in winter. The major roughage fed...
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Three case studies of the investigation of outbreaks of disease or deviations from target performance are presented. The first is a study of a mastitis problem in a dairy herd, made evident by increased somatic cell counts. The pattern of the production problem is carefully analyzed and conclusions ...