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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian pneumovirus (APV) cause Newcastle disease and rhinotracheitis respectively, in turkeys. Both of these viruses infect the respiratory system. A one-tube, multiplex, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of both NDV and...
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A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect of avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain) (APV-Col). The specific primers were designed from the published sequence of the matrix protein gene of APV-Col. The primers amplified a product of 631 nucleotides from APV-Col. The...
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Stunting syndrome (SS) is a viral enteric disease of turkey poults. The aetiologic agent (stunting syndrome agent [SSA]) of this disease has been reported recently. In vitro propagation of SSA was examined in primary cells, various continuous cell lines, and embryonated eggs. Turkey embryos inoculat...
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Stunting syndrome is an enteric disease of turkeys causing diarrhea, reduced weight gain, poor feed efficiency, and maldigestion. The etiologic agent is a newly identified, but unclassified, virus termed the stunting syndrome agent (SSA). The SSA is a pleomorphic, enveloped virus ranging from 60 to ...
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An enteric disease of young turkeys, referred to as stunting syndrome (SS), causes reduced growth and impaired feed efficiency. A recently isolated virus, stunting syndrome agent, (SSA) has been found to be the etiologic agent of SS. The objective of the present study was to determine relatedness of...
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A colorimetric assay employing MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl], 2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was used to determine the mitogenic response of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IELs) of chickens to T- and B-cell mitogens. Comparisons between mitogenic responses of i-IELs and peripheral ...
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Mitogenic responsiveness of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) to concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin P (PHA-P), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in various age groups of turkeys by a colorimetric blastogenic microassay. Comparisons were made...
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A field trial was conducted to measure differences in performance between selenium-supplemented and nonsupplemented heifers on a 1200-cow California dairy. 117 19- to 27-month-old Holstein heifers were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 59) and control (n = 58) groups. A federally approved, commerc...
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The intestinal tracts of ringneck pheasant chicks inoculated with group D rotavirus at 8 days old, were examined PM by light and electron microscopy at 4, 7 or 11 after inoculation. After 4 days, 2 (66%) of 3 birds were stunted and had diarrhoea and dilated intestines. Intestinal villi were shortene...
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CmeABC, a multidrug efflux system in Campylobacter jejuni, plays an important role in the resistance to different antimicrobials and toxic compounds. Although this efflux system has been well characterized in C. jejuni and to a less extent in C. coli, it is unknown if CmeABC homologs are functional ...
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In 2 experiments using mixed sex or male only chickens, the influence of dietary supplementation with Streptococcus faecium was studied. In a randomized block design with 4 replicates S. faecium was given alone for 21, 36 or 44 days, with S. faecium given in water for 44 days, S. faecium given for 4...
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Studies were performed to determine if passive immunization with hyperimmune sera generated to specific Newcastle disease virus (NDV) proteins conferred protection against virus challenge. Six groups of 3-wk-old chickens were passively immunized with antiserum against either hemagglutinin-neuraminid...
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Cyclophosphamide (CY) was injected in ovo on the 16th, 17th and 18th days of incubation. Blood samples were collected periodically from CY-treated and non-treated birds after hatch and were used to measure blood lymphocyte responses to the T-cell and B-cell mitogens, concanavalin A and lipopolysacch...
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The fluorescent antibody (FA) assay was developed for detecting the stunting syndrome agent (SSA) from intestinal tissue. Similarly, the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay was developed for detecting serum antibodies to SSA. Convalescent antiserum from turkeys orally immunized with SSA was fo...
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Five continuous cell lines, swine testicular (ST), human rectal tumour (HRT 18), fetal rhesus monkey kidney (MA104), bovine turbinate (BT), and quail tracheal (QT35), were evaluated and compared with chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) for their ability to propagate B1 or Texas GB strains of Newcastle d...
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Conventional nested and TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for the detection of avian pneumovirus (APV) were evaluated and compared with virus isolation (VI) for sensitivity and specificity. Respiratory tissues and tracheal swabs were collected from experimentally...
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The role of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in protection of birds from Newcastle disease was investigated by two different strategies in which only Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-specific CMI was conveyed without neutralizing antibodies. In the first strategy, selected 3-wk-old specific-pathogen-free (...
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2, 21-day experiments were conducted to document the effects of early immunologic stress and changes in dietary MEn on selected characteristics of immune function of newly-hatched turkeys. Each experiment consisted of 8 treatments in a complete factorial arrangements of 2 injections and 4 isonitroge...
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Stunting syndrome is an enteric disease of young turkeys that results in reduced growth (stunting) of poults and impaired feed efficiency. A virus, which has been termed the stunting syndrome agent (SSA), causes stunting syndrome. In this study passive immunity was evaluated as a method of protectin...
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A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of avian pneumovirus (APV), Colorado strain (US/CO), was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. The single-tube RT-PCR assay utilized primers developed from the matrix (M) gene sequence of the US/CO APV. The RT-PC...
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