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We review studies claiming that fish feel pain and find deficiencies in the methods used for pain identification, particularly for distinguishing unconscious detection of injurious stimuli (nociception) from conscious pain. Results were also frequently misinterpreted and not replicable, so claims th...
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Tricaine methane sulfonate (TMS), often called MS-222, is the most common anesthetic used with fishes. Because it is very acidic (pKa about 3) it must be neutralized especially when used in soft fresh water. Much of the literature on fish anesthetics recommends neutralizing with bicarbonate. However...
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Thermal stress may influence how organisms respond to concurrent or subsequent chemical, physical and biotic stressors. To unveil the potential mechanisms via which thermal stress modulates metals-induced bioenergetic disturbances, the interacting effects of temperature and copper (Cu) were investig...
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We investigated the interaction of temperature and copper (Cu) on mitochondrial bioenergetics to gain insight into how temperature fluctuations imposed by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities would modulate the effects of Cu on cellular energy homeostasis. Mitochondria were isolated from ra...
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The goal of the present study was to elucidate the modulatory effects of cadmium (Cd) on hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in light of the limited understanding of the mechanisms of multiple stressor interactions in aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver m...
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There have been suggestions that analgesics be used by fish researchers. But in the absence of dose-response data for morphine, this suggestion seems imprudent. The purpose of the present study was to develop a dose-response relationship in fish using six doses of morphine. The response (movement of...
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Molecular features of cadmium (Cd) and calcium (Ca) uptake and toxicity in rainbow trout liver mitochondria were studied using modulators of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and rapid uptake mode (RaM). Malate-glutamate energized mitochondria w...
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Effects of growth acceleration on eye development have been examined in genetically modified salmonids. Growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792)) show dramatically elevated ove...
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Impairment of the electron transport chain (ETC) is implicated in cadmium (Cd)- and calcium (Ca)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. To localize the sites of the impairment, effects of 0-50μM Cd and Ca, singly and in combination, on complex I- to IV-driven respirations were investigated using isolat...
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Rainbow trout were exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd (5 and 10mugL(-1)) and dietary Ca (60mgg(-1)), individually and in combination, for 30d to elucidate the interactive effects and evaluate the toxicological significance of mitochondrial responses to these cations in vivo. Indices of fish conditio...
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Pain is a major sympton in many medical conditions, and often interferes significantly with a person's quality of life. Although a priority topic in medical research for many years, there are still few analgesic drugs approved for clinical use. One reason is the lack of appropriate animal model...
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The purposes of the present study were to examine the rate of morphine uptake in goldfish (Carassius auratus (L., 1758)) when administered via the water, to calculate the pharmacokinetics of morphine when administered intraperitoneally, and to determine whether morphine could act as an analgesic. Wh...
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There is considerable pressure for Animal Care and Ethics Councils to recommend using analgesics in experiments that involve fish. Although we do have some data regarding this issue, I argue that we do not know enough to recommend any being used. For example, the doses of morphine used in fish exper...
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The acetic acid test is commonly used in conscious mammals to determine nociceptive thresholds and efficacy of analgesics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of rainbow trout that were not anaesthetised during the acetic acid test. Rainbow trout (n=31) were trained to eat i...
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In this study, we injected morphine sulfate IP into rainbow trout and measured the concentration of morphine and all potential metabolites in plasma using LC-MS/MS at a series of times after the injection. The pharmacokinetics of morphine were similar to those previously reported for seawater-acclim...
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Swimbladder walls of lake charr, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Slave Lake (GSL), Northwest Territories, Canada, were unusually thick for the species. The thinnest sections of the GSL bladders (mean = 2.44mm, range = 1.1-4.4mm) were significantly thicker (P = 0.001) than lake charr swimbladders co...
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Amphibious mangrove killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus (formerly Rivulus marmoratus), are frequently exposed to aerial conditions in their natural environment. We tested the hypothesis that gill structure is plastic and that metabolic rate is maintained in response to air exposure. During air exposu...
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Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging is a commonly used procedure to identify fish. However, there is a lack of research on the short-term effects of such tagging. The purpose of our study was to measure the short-term effects of PIT tagging on the feeding behavior and swimming performance o...