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Viral gametocytic hypertrophy was reported for the first time in 2001 in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in France. Since this date, the number of reported cases and the distribution area have increased every year; however, the cases are not associated with macroscopic signs or increased mortality ...
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Sample-size calculations in the context of surveys aimed at substantiating freedom from infection have been commonly undertaken on terrestrial animals over recent years, but not on aquatic animals. A recent model developed by Audige and Beckett in 1999 can be used to plan and assess animal health su...
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In an attempt to develop a reproducible experimental model of bacterial infection in Crassostrea gigas, oysters taken from very localised sub-populations suffering natural mortality outbreaks were used in cohabitation trials under laboratory conditions. From these trials, a collection of Vibrio stra...
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The occurrence of Marteilioides chungmuensis, a protozoan paramyxean parasite in the reproductive system of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, was observed at Gosung Bay, Korea. Seasonal variation in gonad development was investigated in a suspended cultured oyster population. Gametogenesis began...
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An Australian (New South Wales) isolate of Bonamia was characterised at the molecular level by sequencing the 18S-ITS-1 region of the small subunit rRNA operon obtained from flat oysters Ostrea angasi shown to be infected by histological examination. Sequence data alignment with homologous genes fro...
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Two cases of haplosporidian infection occurred during 1993 in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from the French Atlantic coast. The localization and ultrastructure of the plasmodia are described. In situ hybridization of infected tissue sections was conducted with DNA probes for oyster-infecting hap...
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Among mollusc pathogens, paramyxeans are an important group of protistan parasites belonging to the genera Marteilia and Marteilioides. Martelia refringens and M. sydneyi are of particular concern given their potential impact on mollusc aquaculture world-wide. Aber disease and QX disease are current...
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The protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens has been partly responsible for the severe decrease in the production of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis Linnaeus in France since the 1970s. The calanoid copepod Paracartia grani Sars was recently found to be a host for M. refringens in French shall...
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The life history of Marteilia refringens was investigated. The infectivity of purified early and late stages of M. refringens to oysters (Ostrea edulis) was tested in the laboratory using different routes of inoculation. Naturally infected oysters were monitored in experimental tanks to study infect...
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Bonamia sp. is a pathogenic parasite that occurs in the haemocytes of dredge oysters Ostrea chilensis Philippi in New Zealand. Ultrastructurally it resembles other haplosporidians in the possession of haplosporosomes, haplosporogenesis, persistence of mitotic microtubules during interphase and of th...
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This supplement presents the results of a survey on Mediterranean aquaculture diagnostic laboratories, which has been implemented by the Mediterranean Institute of Zaragoza (IAMZ) in collaboration with the FAO Fisheries Department. The aim of the survey is to acquire greater knowledge on the Mediter...
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Since 1990, outbreaks of haemorrhagic septicaemia, frequently associated with keratitis, have occurred on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata [Pagrus aurata]), farmed along the French Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. Several bacterial isolates obtained from diseased sea bream, sea bass (Dicentrarchu...
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The emergence of new vibriosis in the European Atlantic coasts has been associated with mass mortalities of molluscs causing important economic losses. For example, Vibrio carchariae, a bacteria already isolated from shark, has been associated with a severe Haliotis epizooty in hatchery. In oysters,...
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Bonamia ostreae is a protozoan parasite of the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, which has caused significant loss of oysters in Europe over the last decade. B. ostreae was purified from infected flat oysters and DNA was extracted. The nearly complete small subunit rDNA gene of B. ostreae was amplified us...
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In France abnormal mortalities of mollusks affect many species of bivalves. They occur mainly in summer and concern all the French coastline. For Crassostrea gigas, they affect all life's stages but more particularly spat. A pathology monitoring network, REPAMO, was created at the beginning of ...
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The pathogens related to summer mortality outbreaks are a herpes virus and two bacterial strains one belonging to Vibrio splendidus biovar II and the other to Vibrio splendidus spp. However, the feature pathogen/opportunist of these strains is still unknown. Several strains belonging to the genus Vi...
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Marteilia refringens is one of the most significant pathogens of bivalve molluscs. Previous sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of M. refringens isolates derived from the infected mussels (Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovinciallis) and the oyster (Ostrea edulis) in Europe did not ...
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Different strains related to Vibrio splendidus have been associated with infection of aquatic animals. An epidemiological study of V. splendidus strains associated with Crassostrea gigas mortalities demonstrated genetic diversity within this group and suggested its polyphyletic nature. Recently 4 sp...
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Marteilia refringens is recognized as one of the most significant pathogens of bivalve molluscs. The nucleotide sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Marteilia refringens is used to elucidate the phylogenetic position of the phylum Paramyxea. Genomic DNA was extracted from sporangia of...
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Since 1968, Marteilia refringens bas caused serious and recurrent mortalities in the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and continues nowadays to cause high mortalities in the Atlantic coast of France. Under the EEC Council directive 91/67 this parasite is included in list 2 of Annex A. This list ...
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Original Abstract: L'elevage des huitres repose sur des transferts de coquillages - et donc d'agents pathogenes - entre pays, voire entre continents. Des methodes d'identification pemettent aujourd'hui de retracer cette histoire compliquee, et laissent entrevoir une meilleure protection du cheptel f...