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One side of each of 20 lamb carcasses was dissected into muscle, bone and fat. The other side of each lamb was cross-sectioned at 11 sites. Photographs of cross-sections were scanned with an image analyser to measure the amount of muscle, bone and fat at each site. Estimations of the composition of ...
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For two large California dairy herds with twice daily milking, 171 infected quarters of lactating cows with mild clinical mastitis were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Group A (50 cows) was treated with 62.5 mg of intramammary amoxicillin every 12 h for three milkings. Group C (5...
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A prospective cohort study was designed to describe the patterns and to determine the factors associated with the risk of rectal prolapse in a commercial swine herd in California, USA. Thirty (1.0%) of 2862 pigs prolapsed between 12 and 28 weeks of age with the peak incidence occurring in 14- to 16-...
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Prophylactic efficacy of 100 mg of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) given i/m to newborn piglets within 12 h of birth was evaluated in a herd. The herd had a history of increased newborn mortality, diarrhoea, foot abscess, and arthritis in nursing piglets. Two trials were conducted with litters and...
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Objective - To develop a better system for classification of herd infection status for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease JD]) in US cattle herds on the basis of the risk of potential transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratubeculosis. Sample - Simulated data for herd size and within-herd...
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Toxigenic strains of P. multocida were readily differentiated from non-toxigenic strains by an agarose overlay method using bovine turbinate cells or bovine lung cells. Cells which were young and densely confluent were best suited to this assay. The incubation period required to distinguish toxigeni...
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Half the sows and boars on each of 5 commercial farms that had histories of seasonal infertility were given 4 g vitamin C daily. The other half was unsupplemented. Of 423 sows which were allocated to the experiment during the summer-early autumn of 1978-79, 392 were available for mating during the c...
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This epidemiological study investigates the relationship between various factors associated with swine farms and the nitrate concentration of well water in the USA. Through a random sampling procedure, 605 swine farms located in 18 states were selected for inclusion in this study. A total of 631 wel...
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A stratified random sample of 43 dairy herds in California was studied for 1 year as a component of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS). Costs associated with clinical disease and disease prevention were determined and the resulting costs extrapolated to the entire California dairy ...
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Bluetongue is an economically important arboviral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. In light of dramatic recent changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV), the goals of this study were to re-evaluate the prevalence of BTV infection of catt...
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Blood samples were collected from 145 goats >2years of age: 60 from the University farms and 74 and 12 goats from 2 farms which had a clinical history of caseous lymphadenitis. The synergistic haemolytic inhibition (SHI) test identified 36 goats that gave a positive reaction to caseous lymphadenitis...
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A computer simulation study was carried out using production and reproduction data from 1642 dairy herds for 1984 to determine an optimum combination of sampling plan and sample size for obtaining precise estimates of the population and disease parameters of the California dairy cattle production. T...
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Two newly-born Anglo Nubian kids with clinical evidence of a severe neurological condition were examined. Pathological examination revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation in neural tissue and in localized areas in the kidney, pancreas and lymphoid tissue. Biochemical investigations demonstrated a...
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Populations of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) may serve as an environmental reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts for source water. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of and associated demographic and environmental risk factors for the shedding of C...
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The financial impact of an outbreak of transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs which occurred in February 1986, was evaluated in a California sow herd (320 sows, 15 boars) through estimating the effects on growth, feed, and profit. Two groups of pigs were studied: pigs born before and surviving the ou...
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Milk from 172 commercial cows with mild to moderate clinical mastitis was tested with five antibiotic residue detection assay systems. One hundred cows were treated with one of two intramammary beta-lactam antibiotics, and the remaining 72 cows were treated with intramuscular oxytocin. Milk samples ...
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In studies involving 417 heifer calves born in the San Joaquin Valley between Jan. 1991 and Jan. 1992, determinations of packed cell volume (PCV), total proteins (TP), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and birth weight were assessed as possible risk factors in neonatal diarrhoea. Positive associations we...
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Serologic testing for porcine parvovirus was used to illustrate the difficulties of interpreting results of an imperfect test performed on a sample from a herd. Herd seroprevalence and true prevalence levels were classified as low (< 40%), medium (40–79.9%) or high (≥ 80%). Results obtained from...
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Between July 1985 and April 1986, mycobacterial lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 6 of 2407 slaughter pigs from a herd in which most animals were raised in confinement. All 6 affected pigs had access to earth-floored pens at least 81 days before slaughter. Infection rate was 9.4% in pigs kept on earth ...
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Deaths in cattle fed sudax hay were attributed to nitrate poisoning. Seventy-three animals out of 157 cattle died after being fed the hay, and 11 of the surviving cows aborted in the next 6 days. Toxicological findings supported this diagnosis with samples of the sudax hay containing up to 3.1% nitr...
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The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health, and food-safety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement t...
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Toxigenic type D P. multocida was first detected in New South Wales in 1986. A survey in 1987 indicated that 2% of herds with more than 20 sows were infected. In 44 randomly selected herds, examined between July 1988 and February 1989, the prevalence of infection was 4.5%. In all examined herds, the...
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Data were collected for 3636 full-term pigs born in a commercial swine herd to determine the effects of birth weight and clinical disease on survival during the first 3 weeks of life. Logistic regression models were constructed for 7-day survival for all live-born pigs, and for 21-day survival for p...