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101 - 125 of 262
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We develop Bayesian models to estimate cluster-level test characteristics, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, and predictive values, based on four different sampling schemes: a single test case and three sequential test cases. The corresponding cluster-level characteristics are calculated and com...
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Objective: Animals: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To assess individual and combined associations of high-speed exercise and horseshoe characteristics with risk of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures and proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures in Thoroughbred racehor...
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Objective: Sample Population: Procedure: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from b...
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One hundred and ninety-one sera from horses that recently were exposed to West Nile virus (WNV) by either vaccination or natural infection or that were not vaccinated and remained free of infection were used to evaluate fluorescent microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) incorporating recombinant WNV envelo...
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Objective - To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T. gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats. Design - Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population - 326 fecal samples from cats...
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We evaluated the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IgG indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies in sera from 2 cat populations using a Bayesian approach. Accounting for test covariance...
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Eight female Peromyscus californicus were infected with 102 or 104 Toxoplasma gondii culture-derived tachyzoites (Type II or X) isolated from southern sea otters. All but 2 mice survived infection and developed antibodies to T. gondii. The 2 fatally infected mice were inoculated with 104 tachyzoites...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the results of indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFATs) for Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. The in vitro study used antibody-negative CSF collected from non-neurologic horses imm...
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A Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine that reduced the incidence of clinical disease or reduced fecal shedding of MAP would aid control of Johne's disease (JD). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of four MAP vaccine combinations, including cell-...
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An international committee of Johne's disease (JD) researchers was convened to develop guidelines for JD challenge studies in multiple animal species. The intent was to develop and propose international standard guidelines for models based on animal species that would gain acceptance worldwide. Para...
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Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts occurred with exposure to pulsed and continuous UV radiation, as evidenced by mouse bioassay. Even at doses of ⩾500 mJ/cm2, some oocysts retained their viability.
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OBJECTIVE: To develop a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for genus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) determination with leptospirosis and to evaluate the ELISA in different stages of the disease. METHODS: A total of 1 077 serum samples from 812 patients with suspected leptospirosis were analyzed...
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Objective: Animals: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To measure the frequency and magnitude of reduced fibrinogen binding in a population of horses from a Thoroughbred breeding farm.444 Thoroughbred horses, 1 to 27 years old, including 316 females, 72 geldings, and 56 sexuall...
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A prospective cohort study was used to estimate the incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in a group of unvaccinated horses (n = 37) in California and compare the effects of natural WNV infection in these unvaccinated horses to a group of co-mingled vaccinated horses (n = 155). Horses initial...
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The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is increasingly recognized as a waterborne pathogen. Infection can be acquired by drinking contaminated water and conventional water treatments may not effectively inactivate tough, environmentally resistant oocysts. The present study was performed to assess ...
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A stochastic simulation model was developed to assess the risk of introduction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection into a dairy herd through purchase of female replacement cattle. The effects of infection prevalence in the source herd(s), number of females purchased, and testing...
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate flow cytometric analysis for sex identification in 3 psittacine species, establish reference values for blood cell DNA content for each species, and determine effects of sample storage on DNA content. ANIMALS: 36 orange-winged Amazon parrots, 41 budgerigars, and 39 cockatiels....
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This study was conducted to determine risk factors for Lawsonia intracellularis seropositivity in the breeding and grower-finisher units of US farrowing-to-finishing swine herds. Serum was collected from 15 breeding females and 15 grower-finisher pigs per herd in 184 farrow-to-finish herds, a subset...
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We reviewed Bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the WinBUGS software. We considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a ...
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We developed a Bayesian approach to sample size calculations for studies designed to estimate disease prevalence that uses a hierarchical model for estimating the proportion of infected clusters (cluster-level prevalence) within a country or region. The clusters may, for instance, be villages within...
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This study was designed to identify changes in parasite-specific immune responses that occur during vertical transmission of Neospora caninum and can be used as indicators of parasite reactivation in naturally infected heifers. Ten heifers were unimmunized and 11 immunized with killed tachyzoites. O...
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To describe epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) and evaluate associations between herd production and management factors, and disease occurrence. A questionnaire about management factors was administered by telephone to the owners or managers of 30 P...
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Cows from 2 California dairies were tested for paratuberculosis at the end of lactation by using faecal culture and a commercially available serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Individual cow characteristics and production variables were evaluated along with ELISA testing resul...
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Environmental samples collected from each of 3 locations on 23 large California dairies were cultured to evaluate the utility of this approach for identifying herds infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Results were compared with concurrent ELISA testing of ≥60 animals in each h...
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The sensitivity of the Colilert test for detection of different isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and other verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) serotypes from water was evaluated. E. coli isolates evaluated were of human, bovine, porcine or food origin. The sensitivity of the Colilert test was 92% overall ...