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When a perfect reference test (i.e. "gold standard") is not available, it is possible to obtain estimates of test sensitivity and specificity using "latent-class" methods. However, there are few widely available software programmes that allow the implementation of these procedures. The following art...
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The relationship between intensive racing and training schedules and risk of either catastrophic musculoskeletal injury (CMI) or lay-up from racing in California Thoroughbreds was investigated. Thoroughbred racehorses that sustained a CMI during racing or training and either were subsequently destro...
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Blood samples were collected from 145 goats >2years of age: 60 from the University farms and 74 and 12 goats from 2 farms which had a clinical history of caseous lymphadenitis. The synergistic haemolytic inhibition (SHI) test identified 36 goats that gave a positive reaction to caseous lymphadenitis...
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A portable modified steel mesh panel trap was developed to reduce injuries that wild pigs (Sus scrofa) suffer when captured in simple square panel traps. Immobilization was done with a drug combination of Telazol® (zolazepam and tiletamine) and xylazine hydrochloride (HCl) injected with blow darts....
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To investigate the association between genital bacterial infection and urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), vaginal and preputial swabs for bacterial isolation were taken from 148 free-ranging and 51 stranded California sea lions including 16 animals with urogenital...
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations, CBC results, and clinical signs in neonatal calves inoculated with 3 commercially available proprietary multiple-antigen vaccines containing known quantities of endotoxin. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled field trial. ANIMA...
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An overview is presented including: regulations and regulatory authorities relevant to antibiotic residue detection assays; interpreting results for accepted assays; costs of false-negative and false-positive assay results; is it fair to compromise specificity at the expense of sensitivity; assessme...
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An ELISA was developed for the detection of antibodies against channel catfish virus (CCV) in the serum of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. The ELISA was used to test sera from 20 waterborne CCV-exposed juvenile channel catfish and 10 unexposed channel catfish for antibodies to CCV. Each serum w...
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Data bias in microbial risk assessment, specifically in prevalence estimates, attributable to the use of imperfect tests is discussed. Also, the techniques available to risk analysts for the adjustment of test-based estimates to true prevalence estimates are described. Methods for the evaluation of ...
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The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) is an integrated national surveillance system which collects data on disease incidence and prevalence, mortality, frequency of management practices, and disease costs. Surveillance activities rely on collaboration with government agencies, univers...
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Bluetongue is an economically important arboviral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. In light of dramatic recent changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV), the goals of this study were to re-evaluate the prevalence of BTV infection of catt...
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A 6-page questionnaire was designed to collect information from owners of 134 horses diagnosed with C. pseudotuberculosis infection at the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) between 1 July 1992 and 30 June 1994 and a further 800 control horses, to evaluate risk factors. The questio...
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Important applications of diagnostic tests in non-clinical areas of veterinary medicine include surveillance, monitoring or screening for disease, prevalence estimation, and risk-factor studies. In this review, we address the processing and analysis of diagnostic data with special emphasis on serolo...
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An aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based luciferase cell culture bioassay developed to detect 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatics was modified and optimized to detect and quantitate polycyclic aromatics (PAHs). Twenty-four PAHs were analyzed, and subsequent EC50...
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The causes, incidence and control of arthritis in swine are discussed. Abattoir condemnation of carcasses for arthritis caused major economic losses for producers in New South Wales. Of 1 117 818 pigs slaughtered in 1979-1980, 1979 (0.18%) were condemned for arthritis.
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Objective--To evaluate associations between Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculo-sis (MAP) and caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test results in cattle. Design--Longitudinal and cross-sectional evaluations. Animals--1 California (approx 3,600 cows) and 3 Colorado (approx 640, 1,190, and 1,480 cows) da...
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Objective: Sample Population: Procedure: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from b...
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Thoroughbred racehorses in California that were destroyed because of a complete humeral or pelvic fracture were investigated to determine whether a two-month or longer period without official high-speed workouts (lay-up) is associated with humeral or pelvic fracture. Age, sex, activity, number of la...
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The distribution, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and control of Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs are reviewed. This disease affects wild and domestic canids in Asia, Africa, Europe, the Middle East and North America. Common clinical signs include anaemia, pyrexia, anorexia, l...
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We develop Bayesian models to estimate cluster-level test characteristics, sensitivity, specificity, prevalence, and predictive values, based on four different sampling schemes: a single test case and three sequential test cases. The corresponding cluster-level characteristics are calculated and com...
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The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is commonly used for evaluating the discriminatory ability of a biomarker. Measurements for a diagnostic test may be subject to an analytic limit of detection leading to immeasurable or unreportable test results. Ignoring the scores that are beyond t...
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We reviewed Bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the WinBUGS software. We considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a ...