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Terminal sequences of the bi-segmented dsRNA genome of 3 different strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were analyzed by the rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends (5'RACE) procedure. Both segments are 85% homologous in a 32-nucleotide sequence comprising the 5' end, whereas the 3' end has...
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In 1983, twenty-two outbreaks of viral arthritis/tenosynovitis were diagnosed in a 6-month period on 18 fryer farms of one commercial operation located in western Washington. The main source of the reovirus infection was traced to a breeder flock that supplied progeny chicks to all of the affected f...
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The nature of the viraemia and the tissue distribution of reovirus were studied in the early phase after oral infection of 1-day-old SPF, White Leghorn chicks with the R2 strain of avian reovirus. A range of tissues collected up to 3 weeks after infection was titrated for viral content. Virus was pr...
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Several outbreaks of clinical tenosynovitis in poultry were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from tendon tissue of from 52.98% of affected chickens in different outbreaks. It was also present in the liver and heart blood, and seemed to contribute to the high mortality observed follo...
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Eleven of thirteen infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) were shown to be similar following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of two regions (293 bp and 651 bp cDNA fragments) in genomic segment B and restriction enzyme analysis of the PCR products. Two IBDV strains differed from the ...
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A comparison of the serological responses to a reovirus administered by the eye-drop, intramuscular, oral and subcutaneous routes was made in three-week-old chickens. Their patterns of virus shedding were also compared. All four routes resulted in an antibody response and no virus excretion in faece...
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Lysogeny was readily demonstrated among strains of Staphylococcus hyicus that were isolated from chickens. Susceptibility to phage lysis was affected by prophage immunity, but lipase activity and erythromycin resistance were not affected by the presence of temperate phage. In contrast to previously ...
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Bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus from different outbreaks of tenosynovitis in broiler breeder replacement chickens showed that, although a mixture of phage types was present on affected farms, there was a predominant phage type isolated from lesions of affected chickens. The predominant...
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BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. This virus, which was first characterized following its isolation in cell culture in 1995, belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae, genus,...
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Fourteen laboratories validated their procedure for detection of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in fish tissues using TaqMan® real-time RT-PCR targeting ISAV RNA segment 8. The participants included 12 laboratories from South America, one from Asia and one from Europe. The OIE Reference Lab...
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Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds was initiated in Canada in 2005. In 2006, in order to maximize detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, the sampling protocol used in Canada's Inter-agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey was changed. Instead of collecting a singl...
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As nonenveloped viruses, the aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses are unusual in their ability to induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. While an extraordinary family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins is responsible for orthoreovirus syncytiogenesis, the basis for aqua...
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Mast cells are crucial effector cells in host defense and immunoregulation. They are equipped with an impressive array of receptor systems which allows them to rapidly respond to pathogen-associated signals. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate mast cell activation and mediator release in res...
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Farmed fish provide an increasing fraction of the human food supply, and are of major economic importance in many countries. As in the case of terrestrial agriculture, bringing together large numbers of animals of a single species (i.e., monoculture) increases the risk of infectious disease outbreak...
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Abstact: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hem...
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The goal of the present study was to elucidate the modulatory effects of cadmium (Cd) on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in light of the limited understanding of the mechanisms of multiple stressor interactions in aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver m...
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In the present study the pathogenesis of experimental infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1972) and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was compared. The virus infection in the 2 species demonstrated different mortality patterns and pathology chara...
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A genomic library of Sarcocystis cruzi sporozoite DNA was constructed in bacteriophage lambda gt10. Recombinant phages containing insert DNA were selected by growth on Escherichia coli strain C600 hflA150. Of 14 clones examined, 11 contained DNA inserts ranging in size from approximately 1.45 kiloba...
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Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and...
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Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted ...
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Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), an orthomyxovirus-like virus, is an important fish pathogen in marine aquaculture. Virus neutralization of 24 ISAV isolates in the TO cell line using rabbit antisera to the whole virus and comparative sequence analysis of their haemagglutinin (HA) genes have a...
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) was developed and optimized using 22 bp sense and 20 bp antisense primers in the thymidine kinase (TK) coding region. The amplification product is 183 bp long. The PCR optimization was done using BHV-1 tissue culture super...
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