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This paper discusses the potential for using observations of behaviour to recognise distress in sheep. The term distress is used to describe situations in which an animal is likely to be suffering, and is indicating this by overt behavioural signs. Literature on the behavioural responses of sheep to...
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The effect of repeated lamb removal on the blood leukocyte population of ewes was examined and the behavioural and endocrine responses to the stressor quantified. 12 ewes which had given birth to twins, were placed in separate pens with their lambs. After 13 days, the lambs (14-19 days old) from one...
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This chapter discusses the animal welfare implications of sheep transport, particularly sheep behaviour during road transport, the injuries associated with transport, stress response and thermoregulation and effects of transport on weight loss, meat quality and food safety. A brief discussion of sea...
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Groups of sheep were observed in a slaughterhouse lairage in order to investigate the factors affecting their ability to rest. 34 groups were observed using a video camera and recorder from arrival to dusk (evening) and from dawn to removal (morning). 19 groups were transported by road to the slaugh...
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Biochemical measurements of stress and injury were determined in 112 groups of sheep arriving at a commercial abattoir either from farms (71 groups, n=1829), local markets (21 groups, n=2125) or distant markets (20 groups, n=3145). Sheep from farms had significantly fewer bruises (0.08/sheep) than t...
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The factors affecting the ability of cattle to rest were studied in 127 groups of cattle during their first 3.5 h in a slaughterhouse lairage, focusing on one Hereford X Friesian steer or heifer in each group. In cattle arriving from markets, standing and moving behaviour and aggressive interactions...
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Six groups of eight, Friesian 2-day-old calves were placed successively in a controlled environment chamber. Three groups were exposed to air temperatures of 10° and 25°C. Calves were given a skim milk substitute and drinking (free) water 4 litre/day. Within each group, calves were allocated to a ...
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The handling of 39 cattle during unloading and movement to slaughter of 163 was observed at a commercial abattoir. Most potentially traumatic events and handling events occurred while the cattle were in the race. During the initial 3 hours in the lairage pen, 28 cattle from markets spent significant...
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In a 2×2 factorial design, 6 sheep were either transported by road for 15 h or kept in their home pens, and then either starved for 12 h with access to water or offered hay ad libitum with access to water. All groups were offered hay and water 12 h after transport. Behavioural observations and meas...
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It is the view of many organisations that, whenever possible, it is more appropriate to slaughter animals close to their source of production and transport the carcass rather than transport sentient live animals for slaughter, when long journeys may put their welfare at risk. However, more evidence ...