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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with immunotoxic and carcinogenic potential that may pose a threat to fish populations. This study aims to utilize a newly developed fish immunotoxicology model to determine the immune tissue/cell population level effects of PAHs on ra...
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Waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well documented, while the public health implications for foodborne illness from these parasites have not been adequately considered. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in domestic livestock, where young animals can have a high preva...
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Lymphocystis disease is a prevalent, non-fatal disease that affects many teleost fish and is caused by the DNA virus lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). Lymphocystis-like lesions have been observed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in lakes in northern Alberta, Canada. In an effort to con...
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Previous research demonstrated that exposure to exogenous androgens and effluents with androgenic activity can induce spiggin mRNA production in the kidney of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In the present study, we determine whether a short-term exposure to a known antiandrog...
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In similar experiments conducted in 1996 and 2009, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were stocked into two experimental systems: a demonstration lake where oil sands fine tailings were capped with natural water and a lake in a watershed containing bitumen-bearing sodic clays. In both experiments, yell...
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There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influence...
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Historic deforestation has deprived many river systems of their natural wood loadings. To study the effects of the loss of wood from waterways, a field trial was conducted in three small forested streams in New Zealand. The objectives were to (i) examine differences in fish assemblages among wooded ...
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Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as bioche...
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Two experiments using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conducted to examine the combined effects of energy intake as manipulated by ration and pulp and paper mill effluent exposure over either one, or two consecutive reproductive cycles. This study demonstrated that the level of energy intak...
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Sewage effluent application to land is a treatment technology that requires appropriate consideration of various design factors. Soil type, level of sewage pre-treatment and irrigation rate were assessed for their influence on the success of soil treatment in removing pharmaceuticals remaining after...
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Under the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program for pulp and paper effluents, the observation of a national response pattern of decreased gonad size and increased fish condition and liver size has triggered a centralized multiagency investigation of cause (IOC) of reproductive impa...
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Reproductive impairment in fishes exposed to pulp and paper effluent has been observed in the wild for three decades. Despite intense research, identification of causative agents, if indeed the changes are strictly chemically mediated, has yet to be achieved. This review examines the body of researc...
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The effluent of the Tasman pulp and paper mill (Kawerau, New Zealand) has been intensively studied for its effects on the health of fishes between 1998 and present. This review summarizes peer-reviewed scientific literature on the reproductive effects of the Tasman Mill effluent on fishes. In the 19...
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To evaluate currently available bioassays for their use in investigating the causes of pulp and paper mill effluent effects on fish reproduction, the responses of wild white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from the receiving environment at the bleached kraft mill at La Tuque, Quebec, were c...
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For the last 20 years, studies conducted in North America, Scandinavia, and New Zealand have shown that pulp and paper mill effluents affect fish reproduction. Despite the level of effort applied, few leads are available regarding the factors responsible. Effluents affect reproduction in multiple fi...
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This thesis examines the relationship between fisheries policy, fisheries management, and island community development in Maine and Newfoundland. Three research questions and themes guided this work: 1) what kind of relationship there is between island community development, fisheries policy, and fi...
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There is concern surrounding the large volumes of oil sands-influenced waters produced by the extraction of oil in the Athabasca region in northern Alberta. These waters contain water soluble organic compounds such as naphthenic acids (NAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The goal of th...
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Naphthenic acids are known to be the most prevalent group of organic compounds in oil sands tailings-associated waters. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed for four months to oil sands-influenced waters in two experimental systems located on an oil sands lease 30km north of Fort McMurray Al...
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The objective of this study was to examine the immune toxicity of the alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) retene (7-isopropyl-1-methyl phenanthrene) in rainbow trout. Retene is a common alkyl PAH associated with combustion of terrestrial plants or industrial effluents. Rainbow trout were inj...
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Estuarine eutrophication as a result of agricultural land use, including the use of chemical fertilizers, is increasing worldwide. Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada has very high agricultural intensity by international standards with approximately 44% of the land area under production, and some wat...