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The androgenic potential of a New Zealand pulp and paper mill effluent was measured by applying a combination of in vitro and in vivo bioassays with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The in vivo method assessed the rate of gonopodial development (masculinization) and ...
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The H4IIE rat hepatoma bioassay was used to measure 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TECs) in livers of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected downstream from eight Ontario pulp mills and five reference sites. Subsamples of liver were also chemically analy...
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Using stable N isotopes, the fate of effluent-derived N has been determined within a land based municipal effluent irrigation scheme. Over 900 metric tonnes(t) of effluent-derived N have been applied to 192 ha of production conifer forest near Rotorua (NZ) over the past 11 years. The effluent N has ...
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Long-term studies on the reproductive fitness of fish under controlled exposure conditions are necessary to address some of the controversy surrounding the field-based studies of pulp and paper effluent effects. This study undertook effluent exposures of 2+ age rainbow trout that were approximately ...
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The effluent of the Tasman pulp and paper mill (Kawerau, New Zealand) has been intensively studied for its effects on the health of fishes between 1998 and present. This review summarizes peer-reviewed scientific literature on the reproductive effects of the Tasman Mill effluent on fishes. In the 19...
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The pharmacokinetics of thiocyanate (SCN-) in the blood plasma of 35-g rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were followed during a 20-day exposure to 39.8 mg SCN- liter-1 and the subsequent 16-day depuration period. SCN- concentrations were determined by reverse-phase HPLC. Kinetic constants were est...
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This study combined bioassay-derived and direct chemical analysis of steroidal compounds in pulp and paper and municipal sewage effluent in order to determine the cause of masculinization of female mosquitofish. The bioassays used in this study consisted of androgen and estrogen receptor binding, an...
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Livers were collected from six male and six female white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) at both a bleached-kraft pulp mill effluent (BKME)-exposed site and a reference site during the 1992 spring spawning migration. A semistandardized methodology for 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) analysis wa...
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with immunotoxic and carcinogenic potential that may pose a threat to fish populations. This study aims to utilize a newly developed fish immunotoxicology model to determine the immune tissue/cell population level effects of PAHs on ra...
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Waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well documented, while the public health implications for foodborne illness from these parasites have not been adequately considered. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in domestic livestock, where young animals can have a high preva...
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Lymphocystis disease is a prevalent, non-fatal disease that affects many teleost fish and is caused by the DNA virus lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). Lymphocystis-like lesions have been observed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchell), in lakes in northern Alberta, Canada. In an effort to con...
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Previous research demonstrated that exposure to exogenous androgens and effluents with androgenic activity can induce spiggin mRNA production in the kidney of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In the present study, we determine whether a short-term exposure to a known antiandrog...
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In similar experiments conducted in 1996 and 2009, yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were stocked into two experimental systems: a demonstration lake where oil sands fine tailings were capped with natural water and a lake in a watershed containing bitumen-bearing sodic clays. In both experiments, yell...
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There is concern surrounding the immunotoxic potential of naphthenic acids (NAs), a major organic constituent in waters influenced by oil sands contamination. To assess the immunological response to NAs, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) waterborne exposures were conducted with oil sands-influence...
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Historic deforestation has deprived many river systems of their natural wood loadings. To study the effects of the loss of wood from waterways, a field trial was conducted in three small forested streams in New Zealand. The objectives were to (i) examine differences in fish assemblages among wooded ...
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Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as bioche...
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This thesis examines the relationship between fisheries policy, fisheries management, and island community development in Maine and Newfoundland. Three research questions and themes guided this work: 1) what kind of relationship there is between island community development, fisheries policy, and fi...
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There is concern surrounding the large volumes of oil sands-influenced waters produced by the extraction of oil in the Athabasca region in northern Alberta. These waters contain water soluble organic compounds such as naphthenic acids (NAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The goal of th...