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Methemoglobin is oxidized hemoglobin that cannot bind to or dissociate from oxygen. In fish, it is most commonly caused by exposure to excess nitrites and can lead to abnormal swimming, buoyancy, or death. The methemoglobin concentration in mammals is determined by the balance of oxidizing agents ve...
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Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, has been shown to provide neuroprotection in models of ischemia. However, the mechanism of action of resveratrol-induced neuroprotection remains unclear. Previous work in our laboratory has provided evidence that acut...
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After ischemic stroke, early thrombolytic therapy to reestablish tissue perfusion improves outcome but triggers a cascade of deleterious cellular and molecular events. Using a collaborative approach, our groups examined the effects of guanosine (Guo) in response to ischemic reperfusion injury in vit...
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Stressors such as chronic hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia may lead to insufficient insulin secretion in susceptible individuals, contributing to type 2 diabetes. The molecules mediating this effect are just beginning to be identified. Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 may be one such negative modulator of ...
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We hypothesized that the loss of glucose homeostasis in ob/ob mice is associated with upregulation of islet uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) expression, leading to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Changes in glucose homeostasis in lean and ob/ob mice from 5 to 16 weeks were assessed ...
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Chronic exposure to elevated free fatty acids (lipotoxicity) induces uncoupling protein (UCP2) in the pancreatic beta-cell, and therefore a causal link between UCP2 and beta-cell defects associated with obesity may exist. Recently, we showed that lipid treatment in vivo and in vitro in UCP2(-/-) mic...
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Voltage-dependent (Kv) outward K(+) currents repolarize beta-cell action potentials during a glucose stimulus to limit Ca(2+) entry and insulin secretion. Dominant-negative "knockout" of Kv2 family channels enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Here we show that a putative Kv2.1 a...