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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a central mediator in the hemodynamic response to injury and infection, is a primary mediator of endotoxin-induced hemodynamic instability. Two types of naturally occurring soluble TNF receptors circulate in human experimental endotoxemia and the recombinant ...
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The objective of this ultrastructural investigation was to determine if populations of pericytes in equine dermal and skeletal capillaries increase in a head-to-foot direction, as has been reported in human skeletal muscles. Samples of equine microvessels were obtained from the longissimus dorsi ske...
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The ultrastructure and orientation of microfilament-attaching junctions between pulmonary fibroblasts (also known as myofibroblasts or contractile interstitial cells) of bovine lung septa were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Adhering junctions similar to the fascia adherens of the ...
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Fibroblasts in the pulmonary alveolar septa of neonatal and mature cattle form spot-shaped intercellular junctions with each other where 6 nm microfilaments adhere to the plasma membranes. The junctions have variable cleft widths (10-20 nm) and a diffuse periodic intracleft substance. Impinging 6 nm...
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been implicated as an important mediator in the development of multiple system organ failure after either severe injury or infection. Using the rat cremaster muscle, we previously showed that systemically administered TNF-alpha caused hypotension, tachypne...
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The study of teamwork has been fragmented through the years, and the findings are generally unable to be used practically This article argues that it is possible to boil down what researchers know about teamwork into five core components that the authors submit as the "Big Five" in teamwor...
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Administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) for treatment of metastatic disease often results in inflammatory liver injury. Previous studies have implicated increased leukocyte and platelet adhesion and enhanced nitric oxide production as causative factors in the development of IL-2-induced hepatic injur...
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A flock of 188 sheep was surveyed for cutaneous lesions that were noticed 3 days after shearing. On the basis of histologic features of the cyst wall, ie, association with sebaceous glands and lack of follicular structures or rete pegs, the cysts were classified as follicular cysts.
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are traditionally known for their role in extracellular matrix remodeling. Increasing evidence reveals several alternative substrates and novel biological roles for these proteases. Recent evidence showed the intracellular localization of MMP-2 within cardiac myocyte...
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Activation of photosensitive compounds has been used in the treatment of tumors and as a technique to study various microcirculatory phenomena. This technique may be accompanied by deleterious effects which may complicate interpretations of experimental results. However, the relevant physiological m...
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Gap junctions have been described ultrastructurally between neurons and epitheliomuscular cells and between neurons and their processes in the hypostome, peduncle and basal disc of Hydra. All gap junctions examined in Hydra exhibit two apposed plasma membranes having a 2-4 nm gap continuous with the...
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Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a fungicide and a pollutant of increasing concern in industrialized regions of the world. Reproductive failure is one of the effects of HCB upon mammals. Alteration of cell shape in the ovary surface epithelium (OSE) of Cynomolgus monkeys following oral administration of H...
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Two nonaqueous fixatives, composed of fluorocarbon solvents with dissolved osmium tetroxide, were used to determine the feasibility of preserving the mucous coat in bovine and rat trachea for light and electron microscopy. Aqueous fixatives, while providing excellent cytological preservation, wash a...
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The structure of the scolex, neck, and adjacent strobila of 5 species of Tetrabothrius was evaluated using low to high magnification scanning electron microscopy. Species-specific patterns and morphotypes (spiniform, papilliform, and filiform) of microtriches were found on the scolices and strobilar...
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The acute effects of interleukin 2 (IL-2) were determined in the rat cremaster microcirculation model by intravital, light, and electron microscopy to better understand the pathophysiology of the IL-2-induced vascular leak syndrome. Four groups of rats were studied over a 2-h monitoring period. One ...
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1. Pericytes are cells of microvessels (arterioles, capillaries and venules) that wrap around endothelial cells. They are most abundant on venules and are common on capillaries. 2. The pericyte population is highly variable between different tissues and organs, probably in a manner reflecting postar...
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Studies on the microanatomy of the mucus-rich biofilm surface of normal or damaged teleost skin tissue have been limited because conventional fixation regimes do not effectively retain mucus during tissue preparation. A non-aqueous fixation method, based on a technique devised to retain airway mucou...
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Domoic acid (DOM), the toxin involved in amnesic shellfish poisoning, was presented to live mussels (at 5 degree C, 28 ppt) in dissolved form (125 nM) and as food encapsulated in liposomes. Less than 1% of dissolved DOM and up to 6% of food-borne DOM was incorporated into mussel tissues. DOM absorbe...
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Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are nematode parasites that can cause verminous pneumonia in wild carnivores. There is a paucity of information regarding the distribution of parasites in the lungs and the relationship between histopathological and parasitological diagnoses in naturally infe...
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Domoic acid is a neurotoxic amino acid responsible for an outbreak of human food poisoning in late 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada. In vitro techniques were used to examine the uptake of domoic acid by digestive gl...
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Glutamic acid (GA) and kainic acid (KA) are structurally related to domoic acid (DOM), a neurotoxic amino acid that caused human food poisoning in 1987, following consumption of toxic mussels (Mytilus edulis ) from Prince Edward Island, Canada. To study the difference in response of mussels to a phy...