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Eight female Peromyscus californicus were infected with 102 or 104 Toxoplasma gondii culture-derived tachyzoites (Type II or X) isolated from southern sea otters. All but 2 mice survived infection and developed antibodies to T. gondii. The 2 fatally infected mice were inoculated with 104 tachyzoites...
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The study objective was to assess the risk of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in foals from 4 California farms during 3 foaling seasons. Serum of presuckle foals and serum and colostrum of periparturient mares were tested using indirect fluorescent antibody te...
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A stochastic simulation model was developed to assess the risk of introduction of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection into a dairy herd through purchase of female replacement cattle. The effects of infection prevalence in the source herd(s), number of females purchased, and testing...
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One side of each of 20 lamb carcasses was dissected into muscle, bone and fat. The other side of each lamb was cross-sectioned at 11 sites. Photographs of cross-sections were scanned with an image analyser to measure the amount of muscle, bone and fat at each site. Estimations of the composition of ...
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Kidney tissues were sampled on 3 dates (March 1995, July 1995 and August 1996) from 162 juvenile rainbow trout obtained from a California State fish hatchery where N. salmonis (formerly Enterocytozoon salmonis) was endemic. Kidney tissues were used to prepare imprints stained with May-Grünwald Giem...
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Bivalve molluscs concentrate Cryptosporidium oocysts from fecal-contaminated aquatic environments and are therefore useful in monitoring water quality. A real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed to allow for large scale quantitative detection of Cryptosporidium pp. in mu...
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Serum neutralization testing was used to determine transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) titres of up to 10 sows per herd for 392 herds that participated in the 3 month monitoring of sows and litters in the National Swine Survey. Of the sampled herds, 101 (25.8%) had sow seroprevalences of at least 80...
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Sheep inoculated with a virulent South African strain of bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 4 developed severe clinical signs and lesions characteristic of fulminant BT, including coronitis, hemorrhage and ulceration of the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and forestomaches, hemorrhage in the wall of t...
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For two large California dairy herds with twice daily milking, 171 infected quarters of lactating cows with mild clinical mastitis were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Group A (50 cows) was treated with 62.5 mg of intramammary amoxicillin every 12 h for three milkings. Group C (5...
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A prospective cohort study was designed to describe the patterns and to determine the factors associated with the risk of rectal prolapse in a commercial swine herd in California, USA. Thirty (1.0%) of 2862 pigs prolapsed between 12 and 28 weeks of age with the peak incidence occurring in 14- to 16-...
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Polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs/HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread and persistent environmental contaminants that can cause a variety of detrimental effects in vertebrates. As most available methods to detect these contaminants are expensive, labor and time intensive, and...
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Objective: Animals: Procedures: Results: Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: To measure the frequency and magnitude of reduced fibrinogen binding in a population of horses from a Thoroughbred breeding farm.444 Thoroughbred horses, 1 to 27 years old, including 316 females, 72 geldings, and 56 sexuall...
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The causes of morbidity and mortality in 17 free-living raptorial bird species of northern California between 1983 and 1994 were studied. Of 409 birds examined at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, USA, 58% died of traumatic injuries and 30% died of infectious diseas...
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Prophylactic efficacy of 100 mg of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) given i/m to newborn piglets within 12 h of birth was evaluated in a herd. The herd had a history of increased newborn mortality, diarrhoea, foot abscess, and arthritis in nursing piglets. Two trials were conducted with litters and...
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We developed a Bayesian approach to sample size calculations for studies designed to estimate disease prevalence that uses a hierarchical model for estimating the proportion of infected clusters (cluster-level prevalence) within a country or region. The clusters may, for instance, be villages within...
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Objective - To investigate the epidemiologic and financial impacts of targeted sampling of subpopulations of cows, compared with random sampling of all cows, for classification of dairy herd infection status for paratuberculosis. Animals - All cows from 4 infected herds with a low-to-moderate preval...
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Objective - To develop a better system for classification of herd infection status for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease JD]) in US cattle herds on the basis of the risk of potential transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratubeculosis. Sample - Simulated data for herd size and within-herd...
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We investigated the effect of raising runt white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) separately from dominant fish during the initial stages of grow-out in a commercial farm. Runt fish are poor-growers, have underdeveloped muscle mass, swim slowly and are more-frequently found at the top of the water...
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Bluetongue (BT) is an important viral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. We examined the seasonal patterns of abundance and infection of Culicoides sonorensis at four dairy farms in the northern Central Valley of California to develop estimates of risk for b...
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Toxigenic strains of P. multocida were readily differentiated from non-toxigenic strains by an agarose overlay method using bovine turbinate cells or bovine lung cells. Cells which were young and densely confluent were best suited to this assay. The incubation period required to distinguish toxigeni...
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A combination of 3.3 mg/kg Telazol (1:1 mixture of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride) and 1.6 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride was used to immobilize 144 wild pigs (Sus scrofa) with blow darts. For 123 single injection immobilizations, mean induction times and effective handling perio...
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Patterns of temporal or spatial clustering of C. pseudotuberculosis infections were investigated in 134 infected horses compared with 800 control horses, randomly selected from all non-case horses examined at a veterinary medical teaching hospital, between July 1, 1992, and June 30, 1994. Admission ...
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A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine management, fish, and environmental risk factors for increased mortality and an increased proportion of runts for white sturgeon exposed to white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) and white sturgeon herpesvirus-2 (WSHV-2). The study was conducted betwee...