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Kenyan community leaders called for strengthened sustainable livelihoods for farmers and in 1992 formed a self-help dairy group that was reorganized in 2009 to form the Wakulima Dairy Ltd. (WDL). At WDL, members sell surplus milk to the dairy and, through nongovernmental organization (NGO) partnersh...
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Selected alternative treatments for preventing or controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep under field conditions were evaluated using a systematic review-meta-analysis methodology. Forty-three publications reporting 51 studies (21 controlled studies (CS) and 30 challenge studies (ChS))...
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Biomass burning in indoor environments has been highlighted as a major cause of respiratory morbidity for women and children in low-income countries. Inexpensive technological innovations which reduce such exposures are needed. This study evaluated the impact of low tech compost digesters, which gen...
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We aimed to describe the management and productivity of this group of smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya at the beginning of an intervention program and to document relevant observed changes in the 3rd year of the intervention. A 3-year intervention program, focused on management of animal health an...
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Changes in nitrate concentration in groundwater from wells in Prince Edward Island, Canada were investigated over time using two datasets. Temporal trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations were assessed annually during 1981–1996 (1,299 observations), and both seasonally and monthly during 1988...
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This study was conducted to determine whether targeted anthelmintic treatment of peri-parturient ewes lambing in the winter, spring and/or autumn would suppress the peri-parturient egg rise (PPER) and improve 50-day lamb weights. Three farms in Ontario, Canada, that practiced out-of-season lambing w...
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To describe parasite control and farm management practices commonly used by Ontario sheep farmers, and to determine whether any of these practices were associated with the level of anthelmintic resistance (AR) to ivermectin, fenbendazole or levamisole, we conducted fecal egg count reduction (FECR) t...
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Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studie...
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The epidemiology of the periparturient egg rise (PPER) of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in sheep remains unclear, and may be influenced by the lambing season. This longitudinal study was performed to determine the effect of out-of-season lambing on the PPER in ewes in Ontario, and whether total ...
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Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a significant constraint to pasture-based sheep production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in most sheep-raising areas in the world, yet little is known about the AR status in Canada. This study was conducted to determine the frequency o...
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The study purpose was to validate PetrifilmsTM (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on ...
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Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of a commercially available test for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations for its use in distinguishing between ovariectomized and sexually intact bitches. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. ANIMALS: 101 sexually intact bitches and 199 ...
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The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine if bulk tank milk urea nitrogen (BTMUN) and whole herd weighted average of the individual cow MUN levels (WHMUN) were equivalent measurements of herd MUN status; and 2) to determine the seasonal variation in BTMUN concentrations in Prince Edward Isl...
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A province-wide, cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Neospora caninum (NC), Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) genotypes 1 and 2 (BVDv1 and BVDv2) infection in dairy cattle herd...
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