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Farmed fish provide an increasing fraction of the human food supply, and are of major economic importance in many countries. As in the case of terrestrial agriculture, bringing together large numbers of animals of a single species (i.e., monoculture) increases the risk of infectious disease outbreak...
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The goal of the present study was to elucidate the modulatory effects of cadmium (Cd) on hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in light of the limited understanding of the mechanisms of multiple stressor interactions in aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver m...
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Reverse transcription-real time polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) assay with Universal Probe Library (UPL) probes has been developed for the detection and genotyping of Chilean infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates from infected cell culture. Partial nucleotide sequences (1...
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Background: Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a newly discovered fish reovirus of anadromous and marine fish ubiquitous among fish in Norwegian salmon farms, and likely the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). HSMI is an increasingly economically significant disease in Atlantic ...
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Abstact: Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hem...
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The goal of the present study was to elucidate the modulatory effects of cadmium (Cd) on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in light of the limited understanding of the mechanisms of multiple stressor interactions in aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver m...
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Four strains of staphylococci of different phage patterns (two principal and two minor phage types) associated with naturally occurring tenosynovitis were studied for virulence in chickens and tropism for tendon tissue. There were significant differences in virulence between the principal and minor ...
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In the present study the pathogenesis of experimental infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1972) and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was compared. The virus infection in the 2 species demonstrated different mortality patterns and pathology chara...
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The phage typing and cultural characteristics of 574 strains of S. aureus of poultry origin in Australia were examined. With the avian phage set of Shimizu (1979) it was possible to type 74.2% of strains. A number of significant variations in the phage typing patterns of Australian strains compared ...
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The effect of breed of chicken on infection with an arthrotropic avian reovirus (strain R2) was studied by oral or footpad inoculation of day-old chicks of the SPF light-hybrid, commercial White Leghorn egg-layer, and commercial Ross I broiler breeds, observed to 12 weeks of age. Although most inocu...
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The lesions and etiologic agents associated with 13 outbreaks of respiratory disease in commercial chickens were investigated. Adenoviruses were isolated from tracheal and lung tissues of affected chickens in all 13 outbreaks. Escherichia coli was isolated from the lung of an occasional bird. The tr...
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A genomic library of Sarcocystis cruzi sporozoite DNA was constructed in bacteriophage lambda gt10. Recombinant phages containing insert DNA were selected by growth on Escherichia coli strain C600 hflA150. Of 14 clones examined, 11 contained DNA inserts ranging in size from approximately 1.45 kiloba...
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Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristics of the virus family including haemagglutinating, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), and...
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Current understanding of the etiopathogenesis of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) infection in fish comes mostly from virus detection in homogenized tissues taken from ISA-suspected mortalities. This study combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and histology to demonstrate viral RNA transcr...
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The prevalence of reoviruses in commercial chickens with the runting/stunting syndrome, tenosynovitis, and normal chickens was investigated. Reoviruses were isolated from 3-week-old chickens affected with the runting/stunting syndrome and from older chickens with tenosynovitis; viruses were isolated...
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An optimal in situ hybridization protocol is described for the detection of gene expression of a structural protein unique to lampreys, lamprin, in the cartilages of prolarval, metamorphic and adult sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. A 156 bp antisense RNA probe labeled with (35)S-UTP was transcribed ...
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Of 4,268 wild ducks sampled in Canada in 2005, real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR detected influenza A matrix protein (M1) gene sequence in 37% and H5 gene sequence in 5%. Mallards accounted for 61% of samples, 73% of M1-positive ducks, and 90% of H5-positive ducks. Ducks hatched in 2005 accounted ...
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A novel in-vivo assay system for mapping and analyzing regulatory signals which promote transcription and expression of viral RNA genomes is described. The system was developed using infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a double-stranded RNA virus and Vero cells which are permissive for IBDV, as ...
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Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), an orthomyxovirus-like virus, is an important fish pathogen in marine aquaculture. Virus neutralization of 24 ISAV isolates in the TO cell line using rabbit antisera to the whole virus and comparative sequence analysis of their haemagglutinin (HA) genes have a...
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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) was developed and optimized using 22 bp sense and 20 bp antisense primers in the thymidine kinase (TK) coding region. The amplification product is 183 bp long. The PCR optimization was done using BHV-1 tissue culture super...
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Small multifocal lesions of proliferative pododermatitis were observed in an emaciated adult male northern gannet (Morus bassanus). Ultrastructurally, these lesions were associated with numerous virus-like particles with a size and morphology suggestive of Papovaviridae. DNA in situ hybridization wi...