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The effects of 2 different 8-hour continuous rate infusions (CRIs) of medetomidine on epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, glucose, and insulin levels were investigated in 6 healthy dogs. Each dog received both treatments and a control as follows: MED1 = 2 μg/kg bodyweight (BW) loading dose follo...
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The effects of 2 different continuous rate infusions (CRIs) of medetomidine over an 8-hour period on sedation score, selected cardiopulmonary parameters, and serum levels of medetomidine were evaluated in 6 healthy, conscious dogs using a crossover study design. The treatment groups were: CONTROL = ...
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. DESIGN: Prosp...
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OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on cardiopulmonary function and depth of anesthesia in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: 10 he...
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This study was undertaken to determine whether Haemobartonella felis (Mycoplasma haemofelis), the causative bacterial agent of feline infectious anemia, infects nondomestic cats. Routine complete blood count and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to detect the gene for 16S ribosomal RNA ...
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Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: (1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and (2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-ir...
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Adjuvant analgesics are drugs that have weak or nonexistent analgesic action when administered alone but can enhance analgesic actions when coadministered with known analgesic agents. Such agents are often administered in cases of refractory pain. For some chronic pain syndromes, however, they may c...
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiovascular effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist medetomidine hydrochloride in clinically normal cats. ANIMALS: 7 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURE: Cats were anesthetized with isoflurane, and thermodilution catheters were placed for measurement of central ...
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between bispectral index (BIS) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in cats. ANIMALS: 8 domestic cats. PROCEDURE: Each cat was anesthetized twice with sevoflurane. First, the MAC of sevoflurane for each cat was determined by use o...
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Historically, ventricular demand, nonphysiologic (VVI) pacing has been the most commonly used modality to treat 3rd-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a commercial, single-lead, physiologic (VDD) pacemaker in dogs with 3rd-degree AV b...
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Multimodal analgesia refers to the practice of combining multiple analgesic drug classes or techniques to target different points along the pain pathway in an effort to improve analgesia. This strategy requires an understanding of pain physiology and pathophysiology so pharmacologic interventions ca...
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Adjunctive analgesic therapies are interventions for pain that involve agents or techniques other than the traditional analgesics (opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and local anesthetics). Adjunctive therapies may be pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic in nature. The focus of this article...
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of medetomidine on dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in cats with left ventricular hypertrophy. DESIGN: Clinical trial. ANIMALS: 6 domestic shorthair cats with echocardiographic evidence of dynamic LVOT obstruction. PROCEDURE: Cats were rest...
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The study reported here was done to determine the relationship between bispectral index (BIS) values and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of isoflurane in cats. Isoflurane MAC was determined using the tail-clamp method in eight domestic cats. Ten days later, the cats were anesthetized ...
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The substantial increase in our collective knowledge of pain physiology and pharmacology over the past decade has had a significant effect on the practice of clinical veterinary medicine. An overview of the basic anatomical and physiologic components of nociceptive processing is presented, as well a...
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Veterinary surgeons today are performing increasingly complex and invasive feline surgical procedures. In light of this, it is crucial that perioperative pain management in these patients be a top priority. This article outlines pain physiology and pathophysiology, pain recognition and management st...
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This study investigated the dose dependency of the hemodynamic effects of IV medetomidine (MED) constant-rate infusion (CRI) during isoflurane anesthesia. Twenty-four healthy beagles randomly received one of six MED CRI regimens. A loading dose of MED was administered IV at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.7, 4.0, ...
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A controlled trial of an outpatient cognitive behavioural pain management programme for sufferers of non-cancer chronic pain is described. A multidisciplinary team set up a programme of ten half day sessions for groups of ten to fourteen patients aiming to improve activity levels and control over pa...