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Methemoglobin is oxidized hemoglobin that cannot bind to or dissociate from oxygen. In fish, it is most commonly caused by exposure to excess nitrites and can lead to abnormal swimming, buoyancy, or death. The methemoglobin concentration in mammals is determined by the balance of oxidizing agents ve...
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Edaravone, an electron spin trapper with radical scavenging activity, has been shown to be effective in reducing infarct volume in humans following ischemic stroke. However, concerns of edaravone-induced renal toxicity have limited its clinical adoption. Previous work has demonstrated that edaravone...
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Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, has been shown to provide neuroprotection in models of ischemia. However, the mechanism of action of resveratrol-induced neuroprotection remains unclear. Previous work in our laboratory has provided evidence that acut...
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After ischemic stroke, early thrombolytic therapy to reestablish tissue perfusion improves outcome but triggers a cascade of deleterious cellular and molecular events. Using a collaborative approach, our groups examined the effects of guanosine (Guo) in response to ischemic reperfusion injury in vit...
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The present study demonstrates the benefits of combinatorial antioxidant therapy in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised and the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded for 30 minutes followed by 5.5 hours of reperfusion. Pretreatment with resveratrol 30 mi...
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Stressors such as chronic hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia may lead to insufficient insulin secretion in susceptible individuals, contributing to type 2 diabetes. The molecules mediating this effect are just beginning to be identified. Uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 may be one such negative modulator of ...
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We hypothesized that the loss of glucose homeostasis in ob/ob mice is associated with upregulation of islet uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) expression, leading to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Changes in glucose homeostasis in lean and ob/ob mice from 5 to 16 weeks were assessed ...
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Chronic exposure to elevated free fatty acids (lipotoxicity) induces uncoupling protein (UCP2) in the pancreatic beta-cell, and therefore a causal link between UCP2 and beta-cell defects associated with obesity may exist. Recently, we showed that lipid treatment in vivo and in vitro in UCP2(-/-) mic...
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Voltage-dependent (Kv) outward K(+) currents repolarize beta-cell action potentials during a glucose stimulus to limit Ca(2+) entry and insulin secretion. Dominant-negative "knockout" of Kv2 family channels enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Here we show that a putative Kv2.1 a...
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Uncoupling protein-2, discovered in 1997, belongs to a family of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins that, in general, function as carriers. The function(s) of uncoupling protein-2 have not yet been definitively described. However, mounting evidence suggests that uncoupling protein-2 could act in ...
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Hypertrophy of beta cells from obese fa/fa rats is associated with increased sensitivity to basal glucose. Exposure to glucose in culture distorts insulin secretion more in beta cells from large than small islets from fa/fa rats. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether increased beta ...
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Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) mRNA expression has been shown to be altered by metabolic conditions such as obesity in humans, but its functional significance is unknown. The expression of UCP-2 mRNA and protein in normal rat islets was established by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction an...
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We investigated whether an increase in cAMP could normalize glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) overexpressing (ucp2-OE) beta-cells. Indices of beta-cell (beta-TC-6f7 cells and rodent islets) function were measured after induction of ucp2, in the presence or ab...
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Previous work in our laboratory has provided evidence that preadministration of apocynin and lipoic acid at subthreshold levels for neuroprotection enhanced the neuroprotective capacity when injected in combination. Therefore, the present investigation wa...