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An in vivo rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) branchial xenoma expression model was used to detect the presence of viable microsporidial spores (Loma salmonae) within aquarium-held blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally exposed to a suspension of semi-purified L. salmonae spores. In two separ...
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Microsporidial gill diseases particularly those caused by Loma salmonae incur significant economic losses to the salmonid aquaculture industry. The gill responses to infection include the formation of xenomas and the acute hyperplastic inflammatory responses once the xenomas rupture releasing infect...
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Sturgeon are an important evolutionary taxa of which little is known regarding their responses to environmental factors. Water temperature strongly influences growth in fish; however, its effect on sturgeon immune responses is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess how 2 different temper...
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Sturgeon are an important evolutionary taxa of which little is known regarding their responses to environmental factors. Water temperature strongly influences growth in fish; however, its effect on sturgeon immune responses is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess how 2 different temper...
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Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia have been detected in many bivalve shellfish species worldwide. The detection of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B is of public health concern, yet there is limited data available demonstrating the bioaccumulation and elimination of Giardia cysts...
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The effects of the following six treatments against Loma salmonae, a microsporidian gill pathogen, were examined in rainbow trout: fumagillin (high dose), pyrimethamine + sulphaquinoxaline, albendazole, amprolium, fumagillin (low dose), and metronidazole. The fish were infected by mouth and the trea...
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The induction of protection against xenoma development by vaccinated (previously exposed to a low-virulence strain of Loma salmonae; n=40) and naive (n=40) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) challenged with the virulent typical strain of L. salmonae, was determined. Prevalence of infection was lowe...
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An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) developed for the diagnosis for plasmacytoid leukemia was evaluated against histology under field conditions. Previously published results from a laboratory evaluation indicated that the IFAT had a much higher sensitivity than did histology. One hundred seve...
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Temperatures above 20 degrees C or below 9 degrees C interrupt the life cycle of the gill intracellular microsporidian parasite L. salmonae prior to sporogony, inhibiting the production of xenomas. This study intended to characterize this life-cycle failure. Juvenile rainbow trout were experimentall...
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Four trials were performed to evaluate the effects of water temperature on critical aspects of L. salmonae development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The permissive water temperature range in which xenomas developed was between 9 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Parasite development was arrested...
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Studies on the microanatomy of the mucus-rich biofilm surface of normal or damaged teleost skin tissue have been limited because conventional fixation regimes do not effectively retain mucus during tissue preparation. A non-aqueous fixation method, based on a technique devised to retain airway mucou...
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Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were experimentally infected per os with Loma salmonae and held in flow-through seawater tanks at 12 to 14 degrees C. The fish exhibited 100% infection when first examined at 7 wk post initial exposure (p.e.), and by 20 wk p.e. they had completely recovered fr...
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Few microsporidia have been reported from whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae). For the most part, these microsporidia have been incompletely described. In a survey of parasites of mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni collected from Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, we encountered an unusual...
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The effects of formalin and chloramine-T on oxygen consumption of juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at low water temperature (2 degrees C) were studied with a flow-through respirometer. No changes were found in the oxygen consumption of these fish after exposure to formalin at 200 and 400...
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Piscine nodaviruses (Betanodaviridae) are frequently reported from a variety of cultured and wild finfishes. These non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virions cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), also known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or fish encephalitis. Recently, nodavirus infecti...
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Loma salmonae OA- and SV-strains were isolated from Oncorhynchus kisutch after passage of infective gill material through rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, respectively. In infection Trial I, six groups of thirty-five 10-g fish were isolated into 70-litre fibre...
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Loma salmonae is a common gill parasite of salmonids, and essentially all species in the genus Oncorhynchus are susceptible. Infections occur in both fresh and salt water. Loma salmonae is directly transmissible by ingestion of spores or infected tissue. The parasite infects the wall of blood vessel...
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This paper describes the gross findings, histopathology, and ultrastructural and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) appearance of farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon dying from a disease known locally as 'acute heart failure'. Pathological findings were mainly cardiac, and some fish showed haemoperi...
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A series of challenge and re-challenge studies was conducted in which juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to L. salmonae to determine if a primary exposure, conducted at a water temperature outside of the range which permits the parasite to undergo sporogony and form branchial xenomas, would stimula...
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The oxygen consumption of 3 species of pleuronectids, the yellowtail flounder, Pleuronectes ferruginea, the winter flounder, P. americanus, and the American plaice, Hippoglossoides platessoides, were studied under simulated, land-based aquaculture conditions. Routine oxygen consumption (ROC) rates f...