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The effects of the following six treatments against Loma salmonae, a microsporidian gill pathogen, were examined in rainbow trout: fumagillin (high dose), pyrimethamine + sulphaquinoxaline, albendazole, amprolium, fumagillin (low dose), and metronidazole. The fish were infected by mouth and the trea...
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The presence of dendritic cells in fish is studied with immunohistochemistry using a commercially available antibody developed against Langerin/CD207 present in human Langerhans cells. Langerin/CD207, a protein known to be associated with the development of Birbeck granules in human and murine syste...
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The induction of protection against xenoma development by vaccinated (previously exposed to a low-virulence strain of Loma salmonae; n=40) and naive (n=40) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) challenged with the virulent typical strain of L. salmonae, was determined. Prevalence of infection was lowe...
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An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) developed for the diagnosis for plasmacytoid leukemia was evaluated against histology under field conditions. Previously published results from a laboratory evaluation indicated that the IFAT had a much higher sensitivity than did histology. One hundred seve...
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Temperatures above 20 degrees C or below 9 degrees C interrupt the life cycle of the gill intracellular microsporidian parasite L. salmonae prior to sporogony, inhibiting the production of xenomas. This study intended to characterize this life-cycle failure. Juvenile rainbow trout were experimentall...
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Studies on the microanatomy of the mucus-rich biofilm surface of normal or damaged teleost skin tissue have been limited because conventional fixation regimes do not effectively retain mucus during tissue preparation. A non-aqueous fixation method, based on a technique devised to retain airway mucou...
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Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were experimentally infected per os with Loma salmonae and held in flow-through seawater tanks at 12 to 14 degrees C. The fish exhibited 100% infection when first examined at 7 wk post initial exposure (p.e.), and by 20 wk p.e. they had completely recovered fr...
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Four trials were performed to evaluate the effects of water temperature on critical aspects of L. salmonae development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The permissive water temperature range in which xenomas developed was between 9 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Parasite development was arrested...
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Few microsporidia have been reported from whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae). For the most part, these microsporidia have been incompletely described. In a survey of parasites of mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni collected from Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, we encountered an unusual...
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The effects of formalin and chloramine-T on oxygen consumption of juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at low water temperature (2 degrees C) were studied with a flow-through respirometer. No changes were found in the oxygen consumption of these fish after exposure to formalin at 200 and 400...
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Piscine nodaviruses (Betanodaviridae) are frequently reported from a variety of cultured and wild finfishes. These non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virions cause viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), also known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or fish encephalitis. Recently, nodavirus infecti...
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Loma salmonae OA- and SV-strains were isolated from Oncorhynchus kisutch after passage of infective gill material through rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, respectively. In infection Trial I, six groups of thirty-five 10-g fish were isolated into 70-litre fibre...
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Loma salmonae is a common gill parasite of salmonids, and essentially all species in the genus Oncorhynchus are susceptible. Infections occur in both fresh and salt water. Loma salmonae is directly transmissible by ingestion of spores or infected tissue. The parasite infects the wall of blood vessel...
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This paper describes the gross findings, histopathology, and ultrastructural and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) appearance of farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon dying from a disease known locally as 'acute heart failure'. Pathological findings were mainly cardiac, and some fish showed haemoperi...
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A series of challenge and re-challenge studies was conducted in which juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to L. salmonae to determine if a primary exposure, conducted at a water temperature outside of the range which permits the parasite to undergo sporogony and form branchial xenomas, would stimula...
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The oxygen consumption of 3 species of pleuronectids, the yellowtail flounder, Pleuronectes ferruginea, the winter flounder, P. americanus, and the American plaice, Hippoglossoides platessoides, were studied under simulated, land-based aquaculture conditions. Routine oxygen consumption (ROC) rates f...
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In two variants of Loma salmonae that have specificity for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (OA variant) and specificity to brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (SV variant), the parasitophorous vacuole forms at the onset of sporogony. In the OA variant the merogonial stage is bound by a single plasma...
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Chloramine-T is a widely used prophylactic and therapeutic agent in freshwater aquaculture (mainly against bacterial gill disease). The effects of repeated intermittent exposure of healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings to sublethal concentrations of chloramine-T (0,5, 10, or 20 mg/...
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Two groups of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and one of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a commercial fish farm in eastern Canada were found to have mixed infection of the gills with Flavobacterium branchiophilum (the causative agent of bacterial gill disease (BGD) and amoebae similar to t...
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The therapeutic effect of dietary treatment with monensin was examined in 70 rainbow trout experimentally infected with 200 000 spores of L. salmonae. 35 fish were then a commercial diet containing ionophore monensin (10 g of monensin per kg of diet) and the remaining fish were fed the same diet wit...