Removal of the chorion before hatching results in ...

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Title Removal of the chorion before hatching results in increased movement and accelerated growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos
Author(s) M. M. Ninness, E. D. Stevens, P. A. Wright
Journal Journal of Experimental Biology
Date 2006
Volume 209
Issue 10
Start page 1874
End page 1882
Abstract We investigated the effects of the chorion on movement and growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos. To test if the chorion restricts movement and growth before hatching, we manually removed the chorion 3-6 days before the natural time of hatching (dechorionated) and compared movement, growth and oxygen consumption in dechorionated embryos and in embryos whose chorions remained intact until the time of hatching (chorionated). Dechorionated embryos exhibited 36 times more movement before hatching compared with intact embryos. By 10 h post-hatch there was no difference in the number of movements between the two groups. At the time of hatching [30 days post-fertilization (d.p.f.)], dechorionated embryos had a significantly greater embryonic body dry mass compared with chorionated embryos, which persisted up to 45 d.p.f. At first feeding (50 d.p.f.) there was no significant difference in embryonic body dry mass between the two groups. Dechorionated embryos had a significantly greater embryonic body protein content after hatching (32, 33 d.p.f.) compared with chorionated embryos. Despite the differences in movement and growth, there were no significant differences in oxygen consumption between chorionated and dechorionated embryos. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the number of movements and oxygen consumption in rainbow trout embryos (chorionated, dechorionated, and hatched). Taken together, the data indicate that rainbow trout embryos have the capacity to be relatively active before hatching, but that the chorion restricts or inhibits movement. Moreover, precocious activity in pre-hatch embryos is correlated with accelerated growth and higher protein content, suggesting that the exercise training effect observed in adult salmonids is also present in early developmental stages.
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