Features of cadmium and calcium uptake and toxicity ...
|Title||Features of cadmium and calcium uptake and toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) mitochondria|
|Author(s)||R. Adiele, D. Stevens, C. Kamunde|
|Journal||Toxicology in Vitro|
|Abstract||Molecular features of cadmium (Cd) and calcium (Ca) uptake and toxicity in rainbow trout liver mitochondria were studied using modulators of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) and rapid uptake mode (RaM). Malate-glutamate energized mitochondria were exposed to 20 μM Cd and 50 μM Ca, singly and in combination, with and without addition of ruthenium red (RR), cyclosporin A (CsA), bongkrekic acid (BKA) or dithiothreitol (DTT). State 3 mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by 50% by either Cd or Ca, and by 70% when the two cations were added simultaneously. All the modulators tested reduced the inhibition of state 3 respiration with DTT completely reversing the Cd effect. While state 4 respiration was unaffected by Ca and/or Cd, 1.5–3 fold stimulation was observed on addition of the modulators. Uncoupler-stimulated respiration was inhibited by Cd, Ca and Cd + Ca with complete (DTT) and partial (RR, CsA, BKA) protection of the Cd and Cd + Ca effects. All the modulators completely reversed the Ca-induced inhibition. Swelling, the hallmark of MPTP, measured following incubation of mitochondria with 0–100 μM of the two cations, singly and in combination, was abolished by all the modulators. Overall these data show the existence of membrane channels in rainbow trout liver mitochondria with some characteristics similar to mammalian MPTP, MCU and RaM. Moreover, entry of Ca and Cd into mitochondria is important in the toxicity of these cations.|
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