Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in pigs on ...

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Title Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in pigs on Prince Edward Island, Canada
Author(s) Ebo Budu-Amoako, Spencer J. Greenwood, Brent R. Dixon, Herman W. Barkema, Daniel Hurnik, Chelsie Estey, J. T. McClure
Journal Veterinary Parasitology
Date 2012
Volume 184
Issue 1
Start page 18
End page 24
Abstract In a cross-sectional study of 633 pigs from 21 herds on Prince Edward Island, Canada (PEI), the prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and the genotypes and species of isolates were determined in order to establish the zoonotic potential of pigs in this region. As determined by direct immunofluorescence microscopy (DFA), 18 herds (86%) and 163 animals (26%; 95% CI: 22–29%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium, while just 3 herds (14%) and 6 animals (1%; 95% CI: 0.4–2%) tested positive for Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolates were detected in 39% (95% CI: 34–44%) of weanlings (1–3 months of age) and 9% (95% CI: 6–13) of sows (>8 months of age). Molecular characterization using the 18S rDNA and HSP70 gene fragments revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II, C. suis, C. parvum, and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype. Among the 113 isolates of Cryptosporidium spp. successfully genotyped, pig genotype II (61%) predominated, with C. suis (36%) being the next most prominant isolate. C. parvum (2%; two isolates) and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype (0.9%; one isolate) were only occasionally isolated. The only two Cryptosporidium-positive genotyped isolates from sows included one each of C. suis and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II. All but one of the six Giardia positive isolates were detected in weanling pigs. None of the Giardia-positive isolates was amenable to PCR. This study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. are highly prevalent in pigs on PEI, Canada, are found mostly in weanlings (1–3 months of age). Furthermore, the pigs are primarily infected by the host-specific genotypes and species, Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II and C. suis, whereas the zoonotic C. parvum is rare. Giardia duodenalis is only occasionally found in pigs. These findings suggest that domestic pigs on PEI, Canada, likely do not pose a significant health risk to humans from these parasites.
DOI 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.047
PubMed ID 21868167

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