|Title||Fish microsporidia: Immune response, immunomodulation and vaccination|
|Author(s)||Luis E. Rodriguez-Tovar, David J. Speare, R. J. Frederick Markham|
|Journal||Fish & Shellfish Immunology|
|Abstract||Immune response to fish microsporidia is still unknown and there are current research trying to elucidate the events involved in the immune response to this parasite. There is evidence suggesting the role of innate immune response and it is clear that adaptive immunity plays an essential part for eliminating and then mounting a solid resistance against subsequent microsporidian infections. This review article discusses the main mechanisms of resistance to fish microsporidia, which are considered under four main headings. 1) Innate immunity: the inflammatory tissue reaction associated with fish microsporidiosis has been studied at the ultrastructural level, providing identification of many of the inflammatory cells and molecules that are actively participating in the spore elimination, such as macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophilic granular cells, soluble factors and MHC molecules. 2) Adaptive immunity: the study of the humoral response is relatively new and controversial. In some cases, the antibody response is well established and it has a protective role, while in other situations, the immune response is not protective or it is depressed. Study of the cellular response against fish microsporidia is still in its infancy. Although the nature of the microsporidian infection suggests participation of cellular mechanisms, few studies have focused on the cellular immune response of infected fish. 3) Immunomodulation: glucans are compounds that can modulate the immune system and potentiate resistance to microorganisms. These compounds have been proposed that can interact with receptors on the surface of leukocytes that result in the stimulation on non-specific immune responses. 4) Vaccination: little is known about a biological product that could be used as a vaccine for preventing this infection in fish. In the Loma salmonae experience, one of the arguments that favor the production of a vaccine is the development in fish of resistance, associated to a cellular immune response. A recently proved spore-based vaccine to prevent microsporidial gill disease in salmon has recently shown its efficacy by considerably reducing the incidence of infection. This recent discovery would be first anti-microsporidian vaccine that is effective against this elusive parasite.|
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