Hormone cross-regulation in the tadpole brain
|Title||Hormone cross-regulation in the tadpole brain: developmental expression profiles and effect of T3 exposure on thyroid hormone-and estrogen-responsive genes in Rana pipiens|
|Author(s)||N. Hogan, K. Crump, P. Duarte, D. Lean, V. Trudeau|
|Journal||General and Comparative Endocrinology|
|Abstract||During metamorphosis, the tadpole neuroendocrine brain is a major target for the organisational effects of hormones acting via both endocrine feedback mechanisms and local hormone production. While the receptor-mediated actions of thyroid hormones in brain development have been well described, there is evidence that thyroid hormones could also be an important modulator of estrogen action during metamorphosis. To better understand hormone action and potential cross-regulation between thyroid hormone and estrogen, we examined changes in thyroid hormone receptors (TR alpha and TR beta) and the estrogen receptor (ER alpha) in the brain of Rana pipiens throughout metamorphosis and in response to 48 h waterborne triiodothyronine (T3) exposure (0.5, 5 and 50 nM). We also measured mRNA levels of iodothyronine deiodinase (D2 and 133) and aromatase, key enzymes responsible for local synthesis and availability of thyroid hormones and estrogen, respectively. A real-time PCR strategy targeting these genes was developed using either a fluorescent dual-labelled probe- or SYBR Green I-based method. TR beta mRNA levels were increased during development and in response to T3 exposure. Deiodinase (D2 and D3) enzymes were differentially regulated during development, but mRNA levels of both were increased with 50 nM T3 exposure. ER alpha and aromatase mRNA levels significantly increased at metamorphic climax, but whereas estrogen receptor alpha mRNA levels were increased by 50 nM T3, aromatase mRNA levels were decreased. These results (1) demonstrate that the developing amphibian brain is an important site for stage-specific thyroid hormone regulation of nuclear receptors and hormone synthesis enzymes and (2) provide the basis for further studies exploring the physiological and functional significance of the cross-regulation between thyroid status and estrogen-sensitive genes in the brain during amphibian metamorphosis. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
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