Comparison of efficacy of sulbactam

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Title Comparison of efficacy of sulbactam: ampicillin to ampicillin and saline for treatment of experimentally induced Escherichia coli diarrhea in neonatal calves
Author(s) Jeanne Lofstedt, Lisa M. Miller, G. Duizer, J. Daley
Journal Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Veterinaire
Date 1996
Volume 60
Issue 3
Start page 210
End page 215
Abstract A study was conducted to compare the efficacy of sulbactam: ampicillin (SAMP) (3.3:6.6 mg/kg body weight (BW), IM, q24 h) to that of ampicillin trihydrate (AMP) (6 mg/kg BW, IM, q24 h) and 0.9% saline (SAL) (3 mL IM, q24 h) for the treatment of diarrhea in calves induced by oral inoculation with Escherichia coli strain B44 (O9:K30:K99:H-). Treatment was initiated when severe diarrhea was noted (T0) and continued for at least 3 d; or for 24 h after clinical signs resolved; or for a maximum duration of 7 d. Starting at T0, calves were examined twice daily: appetite; rectal temperature (TEMP); and fecal consistency (FECAL), mental status (ATTD), eye position (EYE), and skin elasticity (SKIN) scores were recorded. Feces collected at T0 were submitted for bacteriology, electron microscopy, and parasitology. A complete blood count was performed at T0 and T3 (24 h after third treatment). Severely dehydrated, depressed, and anorexic calves were euthanized and considered mortalities. Cause of death was determined by post mortem examination. A total of 30 calves were included in the study. Three calves were excluded from final analysis. E. coli strain B44 was cultured from feces of all calves at T0. At T2 (24 h after second treatment) mean TEMP of SAMP calves was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than mean TEMP of SAL calves; EYE and SKIN scores of SAMP calves were significantly lower (P < alpha beta = 0.025) than those of SAL and AMP calves; and ATTD and FECAL scores of SAMP calves were significantly lower (P < alpha beta = 0.025) than in SAL calves. At T3, SAMP calves had significantly lower (P < 0.05) mean hematocrit than SAL calves and lower mean total plasma protein concentration than AMP and SAL calves. Mean fibrinogen concentration in SAMP calves at T3 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of calves receiving either SAL or AMP. The number of surviving SAMP calves (10/10) was significantly higher (P < alpha beta = 0.025) than the number of surviving SAL calves (2/9), but not significantly different from the surviving AMP calves (3/8).

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